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  Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology

Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A (ISSN 2161-6256) and Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B (ISSN 2161-6264) (Earlier title: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-1250) are published monthly in hard copy by David Publishing Company located at 9460 Telstar Ave Suite 5, EL Monte, CA 91731, USA.

ISSN:A ISSN 2161-6256; B ISSN 2161-6264
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Volume 2, Number 6A, 2012
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pp. 723-734

Land Use and Property Changes in Hungary and Poland after EU Accession

Katalin Takács-György, Tamás Erdélyi, Róbert Magda, István Takács and Adam Sadowski


Abstract: Land property in the post socialist countries was rebuilt in the beginning of the 1990s. The process went in different way in all of the post-socialist countries. The result of the privatization of agricultural land was a fragmented, direct or indirect smallholder ownership structure in most of the new member states of the EU. The land, partly or totally was given back to the owners and inheritors of land reforms following the war. It means that considerable proportion of the land is cultivated by tenants, the fragmented estate structure decreases the efficiency and the increasing rental fees further destroy the profitability and competitiveness of farming. Regarding to the competitiveness of agriculture, Poland showed a developing tendency after the accession, but Hungary suffers from serious problems. Applying descriptive statistics between the changes of land use and land ownership during the research relation analysis, emphasizing the effect in competitiveness of the land price and a land rent, the paper tries to identify the main differences and similarities in land use and property structure, and their effects on the agricultural competitiveness based on the FADN data base, since 2004-2007.


Key words: Land ownership and rental, effects on tendencies, EU.

pp. 735-741

Abstract: This study was conducted in Aniocha South Local Government Area of Delta State. The major objective is to ascertain the forest dependent survival strategies of rural women in Aniocha South Local Government Area of Delta State. The specific objectives are to ascertain the socio- economic characteristics of the women, find out the forest based activities of the women, identify what they do with products collected from the forest, establish how much income they make from such products weekly and identify the challenges of these women in exploiting forest for survival. Ten villages were selected and from the selected communities, 15 women were randomly selected in each community to give 150 respondents. From the result of the survey about 96.0% of the respondents had household sizes of between 6-10 persons. Women collect many forest products which include seeds, herbs, honey, mushroom, fuel wood, snails, stimulants, bitter kola, pear, raffia leaves (fronds), edible worms, wrapping leaves, spices, bush mango, locust beans, wild fruits, leaves, fuel wood, snails, mushrooms and fruits. Some of the forest products are used for income generation only, some for household use, while others are used for both income generation and household use. The major constraint is the decline in the availability of forest products as a result of deforestation, over exploitation, bush burning and long distance to available forests. The study shows that forest products play a significant role in improving the livelihood of rural people. Rural development and future forest conservation strategies and interventions should pay attention to the contribution of forest products to people’s livelihood and environmental sustainability.


Key words: Forest, survival strategies and rural women.

pp. 742-748

Abstract: Climate change will impact agriculture and food production around the world due to the effects of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere, higher temperature, altered precipitation and transpiration regimes, increased frequency of extreme events, and modified weed, pest and pathogen pressure. Data of this study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary sources of data were collected using two sets of structured questionnaires. A total number of three hundred (300) questionnaires were administered on categories of respondents in this study. Results of this study revealed that food crops are the major crops cultivated in the study area, and the effects of climate change on agricultural production results in soil loss, plant nutrient loss, textural change, increase in pest and diseases and poor yield germination etc.. This study therefore recommended that cover trees should be planted, which will provide shade and reduce heat, due to climate change and the preservation of underground water.


Key words: Agricultural production, climate change, environment and impact.

pp. 749-764

Regional Risks for Biogas Production in Germany by the Maize Pest Diabrotica v. virgifera?

Arno Deuker, Walter Stinner, Nadja Rensberg, Lucas Wagner and Hans E. Hummel


Abstract: Caused by its multi purpose applicability in different areas of the energy system, biogas is an important source for the concept of “Energy Turnaround for Sustainability”. To clarify the regional risks for biogas production due to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (Dvv) results from the questionnaire on the current situation of the biogas plants in Germany are compared to our Dvv monitoring experiences and literature data. Maize silage is the main source for biogas production in Germany. Dvv is the most important maize pest within the United States. It also was monitored in different German States during the last years. The Dvv infestation risk and consequent damages are closely linked to the percentage of maize within the regional crop rotations scheme. Maize cropping within a monocultural production can lead to a significant harvest reduction of 30% to 80% after the outbreak of Dvv, especially in dry years. A high risk to the biogas production based on silage maize especially in some areas in North West and in southern Germany has been detected. Further research is needed focusing on (1) strategies to control Dvv, (2) development in alternative energy crops regarding their susceptibility to Dvv and (3) development of technologies along the process chains for using alternative substrates, especially residues from plant production.


Key words: Western corn rootworm, biogas, crop rotation, maize pest, alternative substrates, land use.

pp. 765-775

Preliminary Study into the Occurrence and Diversity of Arboreal Ants in Three Differently Aged Oil Palm Fields at Kusi

Selorm Ofori, Stephen Owusu-Appiah, Samuel Bawa, George Yawson and Kwame Afreh-Nuamah


Abstract: The seasonality and relative abundance of arboreal ant species were studied in the oil palm plantations of CSIR-OPRI at Kusi in order to identify the different arboreal ant species in the oil palm canopy and their possible interaction with other fauna and flora. Chemical knockdown and field observation and were used in the data collection. Chemical knockdown study was used to collect data on the relative abundance of the ants with application of a synthetic pyrethroid. Field observation was used to study the nesting behaviour, types of nests and where they were built as well as the interaction between the ant species. The fields which were of ages of 8, 11 and 14 years were one hectare containing 143 palms. Chemical knockdown and ant colony studies revealed higher abundance of arboreal ant species on the 11 years followed by the 8 years and 14 years fields in that order. Oecophylla longinoda was abundant on the 11-and 14-year-old fields while Crematogaster sp. was the most abundant species on the 8-year old fields. Relatively high numbers of the ant species were encountered in the dry months of study. Positive interaction indicated coexistence between O. longinoda and Crematogaster sp. Interaction between Crematogaster sp. and Tetramorium sp. was antagonistic. Similarly, O. longinoda and Tetramorium sp. were antagonistic to each other. The high abundance and diversity hold promise for the potential use of these ant species as biocontrol agents in an integrated pest management system for the management of the oil palm leaf miner.


Key words: Seasonality, arboreal, relative abundance, chemical knockdown.

pp. 776-783

Effects of Different Agroecosystems on Prevalence of Different Species of Pests and Coccinellid Predators

Robert W. Nyukuri, Fred M. E. Wanjala, Evelyn Cheramgoi, Jared O. Odhiambo and Stella C. Kirui


Abstract: This study was aimed at determining the effects of mixed and single cropping agroecosystems on the prevalence of different species of insect pests and coccinellids. It involved six growing crops: maize Zea mays L., beans Phaseolus vulgaris L.  and cowpeas Vignaunguiculata L. Walp in single and mixed stands and sampling throughout the phenology of the crops. Eight insect pest species were recorded on maize grown alone, while thirty seven insect species were endemic on cowpea mono cropped and were of six orders whereas twenty two insect pest species occurred on beans. The predator population was most abundant in the mixed stands of maize and beans (2.33 predators per 30 aphids) as compared to their occurrence in pure stands of cowpeas (0.85 predators per 30 aphids) as there were numerous aphids on beans at pre-flowering phase that supported a higher population level of coccinellids. Also, predator population was at the peak during the tussling stage of maize as they fed on the pollen grains while aphids on cowpeas co-existed mutualistically with black ants that protected them against predation. The genus Cheilomenes spp. was the most ubiquitous predator with a mean of 4.00 individuals per 30 aphids while Hippodamiavariegata was the least abundant predator species with a mean of 0.92 individuals per 30 aphids in all the agroecosystems as the Cheilomenes spp. had a faster discovery rate, range of perception, effective capture efficiency and a shorter handling time of a prey.


Key words: Phenology, stands, Zea mays L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vignaunguiculata L. Walp, agroecosystem.

pp. 784-799

Improving Loading Facilities and Methods to Minimize Stress on Animals during Transport from Farm to Abattoir

Girma Gebresenbet, Techane Bosona, Mulualem Feleke and Emmanuel Yaovi Honnuor Bobobee


Abstract: Transport and handlings of slaughter animals are associated with series of stressful activities which compromise the welfare of animals. The main objective of this study was to improve loading methods and facilities to minimize the prevailing adverse effects on animal welfare during transport. The study was conducted using cattle from animal farms in Uppsala, Sweden. Data were gathered through field measurements. The inclination of loading ramp was measured using inclinometer while floor quality was evaluated using Skid Resistance Tester. The effect of using loading dock was studied. Continuous measurements of heart rate were made on 349 animals using POLAR Vantage equipment, before transport, during transport and unloading. Vocalization, refusal to leave original place, defecation, urination, refusal to move forward towards a gate, slipping, running away and falling were also observed and recorded as indicators of behavioural alterations during loading activities. The size of observed ramp angles in the farms ranged from 5° to 29°. The heart rate measurement result indicated that loading, unloading and confinement in the stunning box were the most stressful activities. During loading, heart rate elevated by about 42.5% when the animals were forced to leave their original place and turn 180 °C, by about 39% when animals were forced to move to the loading gate and by about 75% when animals were forced to climb the ramp. The result showed that heart rate increased significantly (P 0.007) with an increase of ramp angle.  During loading, when loading dock was used, ramp angle was about zero degree and the increase in heart rate was marginal (ranging from 10% to 23%), while the figure was about 75% without loading dock. About 72% of loose animals and 89% of tied animals strongly refused to climb the ramp and enter the vehicle. Regarding floor quality, the rubber mat had the highest friction coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.024 BPN (British Pendulum Number) and concrete slates had the lowest friction coefficient (0.39 ± 0.028 BPN). Incidence of slippery was observed more in tied animals than in loose animals. About 5.7% of observed animals (280 animals) had elongated and curled hooves.


Key words: Sweden, animal transport, animal welfare, heart rate, loading

pp. 800-814

Effect of Transport Time and Handling on Physiological Responses of Cattle

Girma Gebresenbet, Isabel Wikner, Emmanuel Yaovi Hunnuor Bobobee, Gustavo Maria and Morris Villarroel


Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the effect of transport time (up to 11 hours) on animal welfare. 540 animals (cows, bulls and calves), three transport times of 2, 4 to 6, and 10 to11 hours, and two space allowances (2 m2 and 1.5 m2 per animal for cows and bulls; and 1.2 m2 and 0.8 m2 per animal for calves) were used for the experiment during transport from farms to the abattoir in Uppsala, Sweden. Measurements were made on five animals on each trip. Stress response parameters considered were cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase and heart rate. Blood samples were taken before and after transport. Heart rate sensors were mounted on the animals at least 30 minutes before loading and measurements were made continuously from farms to the abattoirs until stunning. The results of heart rate measurement indicated that loading, un-loading and forced movement in the stunning box were the most stressful events. However, the results of statistical analysis confirmed that transport time doesn’t have significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) on heart rate. Concentration level of cortisol increased by 10 folds during short transport. However, cortisol concentration decreased with an increase of transport times (P ≤ 0.01). Glucose concentrations increased with transport time in all animal categories (P ≤ 0.01). Transport time has significant effect on concentration levels of glucose (P ≤ 0.01), creatine kinase (P 0.001) and lactate (P 0.01) particularly after 6 hours journey time.


Key words: Transport time, cattle, welfare, physiological parameters.

pp. 815-823

Effect of Copper Oxide Nano Particle on Seed Germination of Selected Crops

Tapan Adhikari, Samaresh Kundu, Ashis Kumar Biswas, Jagadish Chandra Tarafdar and Anangi Subba Rao


Abstract: Nano particles are finding their way into the environment through deliberate and accidental actions, ecotoxicological properties and the risks of these nano particles have yet not been fully characterized. In this present investigation, experiments were carried out to know the effect of Cu oxide-nano particles (< 50 nm) on germination and growth of seeds of soybean and chickpea. In both the crops, germination was not checked up to 2,000 ppm Cu (applied through Cu oxide-nano particles), but the root growth was prevented above 500 ppm Cu. With increasing concentration of NPs, the elongation of the roots was severely inhibited as compared to that in control. In many cases root necrosis was occurred. Massive adsorption of Cu oxide-nano particles into the root system was responsible for the toxicity. A parallel experiment was also carried out to know the effect of copper sulphate solution on seed germination, above 200 ppm Cu, it restricted the germination of seeds, because of high salinity.


Key words: Cu-nano particles, soybean, chickpea.

pp. 824-832

Abstract:           This study investigate the effect of the concentration of nitrate and phosphate, present in the culture medium, on the chemical and biochemical composition of the products from the marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp.. Experimental design allowed the assessment, in a systematic way, of the response of the microalgae to the nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and the way they lead to changes in the total amount of carotenoids, chlorophyll a, iron and magnesium produced or uptaken. The total carotenoids presented a higher yield when cultivated under lower phosphate concentrations, but showed no change with nitrate concentration. Chlorophyll a yield increased in the presence of higher concentrations of nitrogen and lower concentrations of phosphorus. There was an increase in the amount of iron absorbed by cells when higher levels of nitrates were present, but the effect is insignificant with phosphates. The magnesium content was not significantly affected by culture manipulation. The results also showed that the biomass yield of the microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was negatively affected by the N/P ratio. The antioxidative potential of the microalgae, in contrast, was found to increase with the N/P ratio.


Key words: Antioxidants, biomass, DPPH, experimental design, redfield ratio.

pp. 833-839

Effect of Nutrimental Stress on the Pigment Content of the Heliophytic Poinsettia (Euphorbia Pulcherrima cv. Valenciana)

Yolanda Leticia Fernández-Pavía, María Teresa B. Colinas-León, Rogelio Castro-Brindis, Tito Rojas Roque and Gustavo Adolfo Baca-Castillo


Abstract: Nutrimental requirements of heliophytic poinsettias have not yet been determined, this information is essential for developing an adequate technological package to orient producers in its management. The behavior of the plant under nutritional stress needs to be known by the application of a hydroponic system. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the physiological effect of induced deficiencies of five macronutriments (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) and its influence on the pigment production of the poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima cv. “Valenciana”. The study was made during 2010 at the Research Unit “Dr. Ramón Fernández González” in Texcoco, State of Mexico. Six treatments were tested during 240 days from transplant in a totally randomized experimental design. Chlorophylls contents were determined at the beginning of the experiment. At the end of the treatment period, the contents of nutrients, chlorophylls, leaf carotenoids and bract anthocyanins were determined. The effects observed as results of the treatments were: reduction in plant height and diameter; the lowest content of total chlorophylls was observed in the absence of nitrogen, the largest reduction being of chlorophyll a and carotenoids; a low content of anthocyanins was observed to be associated with low nitrogen and calcium; a high correlation was found between nitrogen supplementation and measured non-destructively with a SPAD 502 Minolta unit values measured intensity of green color of leaves.


Key words: Poinsettia, pigments, nutriments, hydroponics, “Valenciana”.

pp. 840-844

Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food staple in most of the tropical and sub tropical countries of the world. In Uganda, rice has grown to become an important food security crop and source of cash income for the majority of the rural farming communities across the country. Despite its importance, rice production has consistently remained low averaging 1.5 t/ha under farm conditions. The low production of rice is attributed to a number of production constraints. Therefore the objective of the survey was to ascertain the major production constraints in rice growing in the two sub-counties of Orum and Ogor, Otuke district. A diagnostic survey using semi- structured questionnaires was conducted in the two sub counties between July and August 2010 to gather information on the major production constraints from key informants, opinion leaders, farmers, technical and political leaderships. The findings showed that diseases were the major constraints in rice production accounting to 27% compared to other constraints. The other constraints included insect pests (23%), weeds (21%), drought (20%) and low prices (9%). The major diseases encountered were rice blast (30%), brown spot (23%), rice yellow mottle virus (19%), sheath rot (15%) and grain rot (13%). Overall, diseases accounted for 79% of the yield reduction in rice. The implication of these findings therefore is that diseases and other constraints in rice production must be adequately identified for easy management to ensure sustainable rice production. More importantly, farmers should be sensitised on disease recognition, means of spread and control.


Key words: Diseases, rice, production constraints.

pp. 845-850

Determination of Some Design Parameters for Roller Type Seed Metering Device

Hossein Navid, Hamid Reza Ghassemzadeh and Mohammad Moghaddam


Abstract: There are many design parameters in precision planters to be considered such as cell diameter, peripheral speed of roller, number of cells, manner of feeding seeds into cell and travel speed. In precision planters each cell must contain only one seed. Therefore, sliding the seed to the cell is important and depends on several parameters such as seed repose angle, seed dimensions and physics of cell. To help the seed to repose in the cell, making a groove on the roller would be very useful. Dimensions of this groove are very important and are considered as basic design parameters. This research was performed to determine some design parameters such as roller speed, travel speed, length and depth of groove for tomato seeds precision planting. In this regard, seeds with a diameter of 4 mm were used. The range of variation was based on calculations obtained. A roller with 42 mm width, 118 mm diameter and 15 cells on the surface was used in the experiment. For each cell, a triangular groove was created on the roller. The groove depth varied from zero at the beginning to the maximum value where the groove connected to the cell. The test unit had a continued and wide belt with 11 m length. In each replication, planter worked for 20 s to reach a stable state. Thereafter, seeds were allowed to drop on the grease belt. Number of seeds and their spacing were measured on the 4.5 m of the belt. Results showed that the roller speed of 41.5 rpm, the planter travel speed of approximately 1 km/h, groove length of 6-8 mm and groove depth of 1.5 mm can improve planter performance for tomato pelleted seed.


Key words: Design, metering device, precision planter, design parameters.

Volume 2, Number 6B, 2012
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pp. 627-641

Abstract: This paper reviews programs and projects that are elements of the strategy to boost crop production in general and grain legumes in particular in Nigeria. The objective is to bring to fore the neglect of grain legumes production in such strategies and for improved understanding of the need to implement grain legumes specific programs for enhanced food security in the country. The paper reiterates that grain legumes were neglected in most of the strategies for increased crop production which presented enormous challenges and reflects largely the inbalance in the policies for the attainment of food self-sufficiency and food security in the country. The paper gives an overview of the programs and projects, and reviews the output of grain legumes during the period (1970-2007). It submits that the activities of some research institutes and the presidential initiative on vegetable oil development program had positive impact on the output of legumes which is an added impetus for the need to establish grain legumes specific research institutes and programs for further productivity increases. Constraints identified by the paper include: poverty, storage systems, among others. It itemizes prospects and current challenges for grain legume crop sub-sector in Nigeria.


Key words: Accelerating, grain legumes, production, small-scale farmers, prospects and challenges.

pp. 642-651

Abstract: The microsatellite analysis of DNA plays an important role in studying the population genetics such as population structure, genetic variability and diversity, phylogenetic relationships of wild population of endangered species. The main aim of this study was the estimation of ten microsatellite markers variability in the F. cherrug and F. peregrinus populations. We investigated genetic diversity and structure of populations by using non-invasive genetic identification of individuals to characterize populations of raptors living in the captivity and wild in the Czech Republic during the breeding seasons 2009 and 2010. Within Falco cherrug, significant moderate genetic differentiation (FST) was observed between Falco cherrug wild and captive. This means that there could be a little differentiation between the wild and the captive populations caused by Falco cherrug subspecies origin or hybridization in the captivity. The absence of significant genetic differentiation between Falco peregrinus wild and captive may be caused by the influence of reintroduction the captive populations in the past. Whereas one breeding population of Falco peregrinus (Kokorinsko2 2010) was clustered by UPGMA dendrogram into the individual group, we assumed this population like independent, maybe not influenced by other groups. Moreover, a larger sample size would be necessary to confirm the hypothesis.


Key words: Raptors, microsatellites, population structure, genetic variability, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), saker falcon (Falco cherrug).

pp. 652-658

Agricultural Higher Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Turkey

Ayzin Baykam Küden, Dilek Bostan Budak and Ali Recep Nazlı


Abstract: Agriculture in Turkey has been playing a significant role in Turkish economy and agricultural sectors are the most important provider of employment. Additionally, agriculture is major income source for farmers in rural areas and education level positively effects their income level and productivity. Agricultural faculties, institutions and agricultural extension services are mainly responsible for farmers’ education in Turkey. The mission of agricultural education is to provide education for young people to prepare them for life and also work for rural community. Also, the agricultural education is responsible for the development of practical and theoretical knowledge of people in rural areas with disseminating information and new technologies. Basic field studies on the national qualifications framework for higher education of Turkey has been determined by a working group of deans formed by the CoHE under the Bologna process. Sixty programs on agriculture, forestry and fishery were identified at the faculties. A small working group formed among the deans of the agricultural faculties founded ZİDEK accreditation society to accredited programs at the agricultural faculties. Also a report was prepared by another working group to recommend worldwide programs to the agricultural faculties in Turkey. Mass media plays an important role for disseminating the agricultural innovations to rural areas. In this respect, the primary goal of Turkey is the improvement of welfare of farmers in order to sustain rural development. For this aim, handicraft training centers to diversify the rural economy, agricultural publication services of MoFAL distribute publications in order to disseminate information and new technologies, Widespread Education Project for Farmers (YAYCEP) has been started and within the scope of the project producers who live in rural areas, education and extension services and projects for woman farmers and other extension studies have been carried out under the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock in collaboration with 26 agricultural faculties in Turkey.


Key words: Rural development, rural area, higher education, agriculture.

pp. 659-664

Taxonomic Status of Daduhe Loquat (Eriobotrya prinoides var. dadunensis)

Wang Yongqing, Yan Juan, Yang Qin, Fu Yan, Luo Nan and Lv Xiulan


Abstract: The taxonomic status of Daduhe loquat (E. prinoides var. dadunensis) was studied through analyzing genetic relationships among Oakleaf loquat (E. prinoides), Daduhe loquat and Common loquat (E. japonica) using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular marker and morphologic marker in this paper. Based on ISSR marker research, the similarity coefficient between Oakleaf loquat and Common loquat was lower than the similarity coefficient between Oakleaf loquat and Daduhe loquat while the similarity coefficient between Daduhe loquat and Common loquat was intermediate. The highest additivity was obtained when Daduhe loquat was regarded as the undetermined hybrid (45.8%). The specific bands of Oakleaf loquat and Common loquat were present in Daduhe loquat. Based on morphologic traits research, Daduhe loquat was also between Oakleaf loquat and Common loquat but a little leaning to Oakleaf loquat. All the results support that Daduhe loquat was hybrid of Oakleaf loquat and Common loquat.


Key words: Common loquat, Daduhe loquat, genetic relationship, ISSR marker, morphologic traits, Oakleaf loquat, taxonomic status.

pp. 665-670

In vitro Propagation of Walnut (Juglans regia) by Nodal Explants

Layla Shaaban Mohammed Al-Mizory and Azad Ahmed Mayi


Abstract: Micropropagation techniques were set up for walnut. Many plantlets were obtained by culturing node explants in MS medium,with 30 g/L sucrose, 7 g/L agar, and different concentrations of BA or Kin alone and different concentrations of BA + NAA or BA + Kin. BA at concentration (2 mg L-1 BA) gave the best results in percentage response and number of shoots/plant (100%, 2.84) respectively. While, Kin at 3 mg L-1 gave the highest average shoot length (2.81 cm). However, MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg L-1 + 0.5 mg L-1 Kin gave the best results compared with all treatment shoot/explants and the highest number of leaves/explants (3.7, 8.2) respectively. While the highest length of shoot (4.7 cm) in MS medium supplemented with 3 mg L-1 Kin. and a high rooting percentage up to 60% at MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) was obtained .


Key words: Micropropagation, walnut, single-node explants, cytokinins.

pp. 671-677

Comparative Studies of the Biochemical Parameters of the Leaves and Seeds of Moringa oleifera

Abayomi Ezekiel Folorunso, Kemi Feyisayo Akinwunmi and Raphael Emuebie Okonji


Abstract: Comparative studies of the biochemical parameters of the leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera was carried out to provide additional information on the nutritional status of the leaf and seed of M. oleifera. The vegetative and floral characters of the plants collected were examined, floral diagram and formular were recorded. Protein variation in the dry seed and leaf is an indication of protein polymorphism and this depicts the genetic divergence in the leaf and seed of M. oleifera. Protein bands at 0.4, 1.1, 3.9 and 5.8 are taxonomically distinct, thus diagnostically separated the dry seed from other samples. Proximate analysis shows that the dry samples are more nutritious than the wet samples.


Key words: Vegetative character, floral character, protein band, proximate analysis, Moringa oleifera.

pp. 678-690

Classification of Thai Honey Origins by Their Mineral Contents and Color Parameters

Nongnuch Tantidanai-Sungayuth, Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen and Pitiporn Ritthiruangdej


Abstract: Honey is a product of the elaboration of flower nectar by bees. The general features and elemental composition of honey depend on its botanical origin. In this study, five color parameters (L*: lightness, a*: red color, b*: yellow color, C*ab and hab) and five elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Zn) were determined and related with 91 Thai honey samples. The origins of four botanic types of (1) longan flower (Dimocarpus sp.), (2) lynchee flower (Litchi sp.), (3) sunflower (Helianthus sp.) and (4) wild flower (Eupatorium sp.) using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that five color parameters and five metal contents related with the Thai botanic origins of the honeys using principle component analysis (PCA). Six major indicators of PC1 (variance is 44.33%) from three color parameters are L*(-0.926), a*(0.927) and hue or hab (0.824) and from three metal contents are K (0.833), Ca (0.816) and Mg (0.595). Two minor indicators of PC2 (variance is 21.58%) from color parameters are b*(-0.934) and Chroma or C*ab (-0.834). Two indicators of PC3 (%variance is 12.47%) from contents of Na (-0.722) and Zn (0.704). Thai Lynchee (C) flower honeys classified using both six parameters in PC1 and two color parameters in PC2. Thai longan flower (G) honeys classified using the contents of Zn and Na in PC3 parameters. Thai sunflower (S) honeys classified using two color parameters in PC2. Thai wild flower (W) honeys classified using the metal contents of K in PC1 parameter, Zn and Na in PC3 parameters.


Key words: Minerals, metals, Thai honey, botanic origins, Lynchee (Lichi sp.), sun flower (Helianthus sp.), longan (Dimocarpus sp.), PCA.

pp. 691-702

Selection of Yeast Strains Containing β-Glucosidase for Improving Wine Aroma

Chokchai Wanapu, Patcharaporn Sripunya and Nantakorn Boonkerd


Abstract: Aroma is an important component for characteristic of wine. b-glucosidase is an enzyme for enhancing wine aroma during fermentation and aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate b-glucosidase activities from 17 yeast strains. It was found that strain 71B-1122 exhibited highest activity of b-glucosidase. The purified enzyme of this strain was characterized. The purified enzyme was added in Muscat must before wine making process. The must and wine were determined for volatile compounds by headspace-SPME/GC-MS and found that the hexyl acetate, linalool, phenethyl, nerol and geraniol compounds were significantly increased after treated with the enzyme. Sensory evaluation of the combined alcoholic fermentation and flavour enrichment of Muscat juice by adding of purified b-glucosidase enzyme showed well oenological properties especially aroma. Therefore, in producing wine, yeast strain selection and addition of b-glucosidase enzyme should be considered because they were important factors affecting wine aroma.


Key words: b-Glucosidase, headspace-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine aroma.

pp. 703-712

Abstract: Besides control of the fungal plant pathogens, another interesting aspect observed when plants are treated with Trichoderma harzianum include effects such as complete and even stand of plants, improved seed germination, increases in plant height and overall enhanced plant growth. No research has yet been conducted to elucidate the mechanism by which these effects occur. Improved seed germination, in particular, suggest that Trichoderma harzianum produces a metabolite that may mimic the plant growth hormone gibberellic acid. The metabolite gliotoxin, produced by Trichoderma harzianum appear to be structurally most similar to gibberellic acid. In this study, common pharmacophore generation and molecular ligand docking simulations were used to evaluate the molecular similarity between gibberellic acid, specifically GA3, and gliotoxin. For the common pharmacophore evaluation, the structure of various gibberellic acids were used to construct a pharmacophore space to which gliotoxin was aligned, and during the molecular docking simulations the gibberellic acid receptor, GID1, served as ligand target for GA3 and gliotoxin. During the common pharmacophore evaluation, gliotoxin was successfully aligned to the common pharmacophore model constructed from various gibberellic acids. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations of gliotoxin and GA3 into the gibberellic acid receptor (GID1) yielded docking scores of -10.78 kcal/mol for the GA3 molecule from Corina and a docking score of -10.17 kcal/mol for gliotoxin. The docking scores suggest that gliotoxin may be able to competitively occupy the receptor space for gibberellic acid, and as such elicit the similar physiological responses observed in literature.


Key words: Gibberellic acid, gliotoxin, GID1, molecular similarity, Trichoderma harzianum.


pp. 713-720

Cell Viability of Byrsonima intermedia A Juss Calli

Luciano Coutinho Silva, Renato Paiva, Daiane Peixoto Vargas, Diogo Pedrosa Correa da Silva, Raírys Cravo Herrera, Sandro Barbosa and Antônio Paulino da Costa Netto


Abstract: Byrsonima intermedia A Juss. is a species with pharmacological properties from the Brazilian Cerrado that shows difficulties related to sexual propagation. Research on cell viability may provide useful information for the selection of cells with embryogenic potential during the callus culture. Within this context, our research is aimed at establishing the cell viability of calli from Byrsonima intermedia leaf segments. The calli went through three subculture phases, of 60 days each, in MS medium with 0.09 M sucrose, 0.6% agar, pH 5.8 and 4.52 µM 2,4-D. The calli were stored in dark conditions and samples were collected every 10 days from each subculture for viability tests with fluorescein 3,6-diacetate (FDA) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). The staining methods allowed quantifying cell viability in each subculture. The best results from the FDA tests were obtained at 21, 25 and 29 days for the first, second and third subcultures respectively, with 53.86%, 61.88% and 53.73% viable cells. Regarding the TTC test, the largest absorbance values were obtained at 21, 27 and 28 days for the first, second and third subcultures respectively. Fluorescence and spectrophotometry analyses were efficient for determination of cell viability during callus cultivation period.


Key words: Cell viability, fluorescein 3,6-diacetate, 2,3,5-tripheniltetrazolium chloride, subculture, tissue culture, native plant.

pp. 721-730

Abstract: Climatic factor’s effect was studied on the radial growth of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) by using the stem analysis of 36 trees distributed in 6 plantations in Parakou and Tchaourou districts in northern Benin. The results showed that the plantations of Parakou were in general more productive than those of Tchaourou. The annual average growth was estimated in the first five years at 0.86 cm/year for Parakou and 0.76 cm/year at Tchaourou. The analysis of the radial growth showed that a significant percentage of the variance was allotted to the growth model. It follows that a big part of the ring width was predetermined before the intervention of the other factors, in particular the climatic conditions. The percentage of the variance related to the climatic conditions was thus more reduced for the plantations of Tchaourou than those of Parakou. The radial growth was influenced by the conditions of humidity (evapotranspiration, humidity and rain) of February to May on the one hand and those from August to October on the other hand.


Key words: Teak, stem analysis, radial growth, climatic factors, North Benin.

pp. 731-736

Abstract: A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Mahidol University, Thailand from January to May 2009. Macadamia plants were planted in pots with mixed substrate of soil: sand: coconut-coir: rice-husk: charcoal; 3.0: 1.0: 0.5: 1.0, respectively. Micro drip-irrigation system was operated 10:00 to 16:00 h daily with a controller scheduled to pump 12 minutes at 12 intervals. The study showed that application of Enshi tablet (18 tablets/plant/year) in a drip-irrigation system enhances growth of Macadamia compared to the application of Osmocote™ tablet, Modified-enshi and Enshi solution. Significant variation in chlorophyll (a + b) content was observed in Enshi tablet treatment. Soil chemical analyses indicated that the nutrient content in Enshi tablet appeared low compared to other formulations but nutrient removal was considerably brought down by the system, which gives a balance between nutrient removals by crops and addition through fertilizers. Hence, application of Enshi tablet is suggested for Macadamia in a drip-irrigation system.


Key words: Fertilizer formulations, micro drip-irrigation system, greenhouse, Macadamia (Macadamia spp.).




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