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  Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Volume 2, Number 1, January 2014

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Volume 2, Number 1, January 2014
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An Overview of Entada phaseoloides: Current Research and Future Prospects

Chandana Choudhury Barua, Mousumi Hazorika and Jyoti Misri


Abstract: In recent times, focus on plant research and herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed and developing countries. Entada phaseoloides, a well-known creeper widely used therapeutically in the orient and has become increasingly popular as an important medicinal plant. Many studies have been carried out on this medicinal plant and have generated immense data about the morphology, chemical composition, corresponding to biological activity of extracts and isolated secondary metabolites. Biological studies and traditional clinical practice demonstrated that Entada phaseoloides and its bioactive compounds possess various pharmacological properties. The plant has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antiarthritis, antidiabetic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and molluscidal agent. The present review summarizes current knowledge on morphology, major bioactive(s) constituents and its chemistry, reported medicinal properties, pharmacological actions, folklore uses and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Despite this, further investigations are required to explore Entada phaseoloides and to evaluate the different biological activities of either its extracts or the isolated compounds with probable modes of action.


Key words: Entada phaseoloides, morphology, bioactive constituents, folklore uses.


Management of Coagulations Disorders in Oral Surgery: State of Art

Mauro Labanca, Luigi F. Rodella and Paolo Brunamonti Binello


Abstract: Understanding and managing the bleedings causes is essential for a good surgical practice in general. In fact, it is crucial to know how to manage and control this problem (sometimes simply annoying, but that may be able to cause even dangerous consequences) with a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, trying to use all the means is available today. The goal of this paper is to describe, even through a brief review of the literaturethe State of Art about the bleeding control in oral surgery, the proper use of surgical devices and the NOACs (new oral anticoagulants) appearance.


Key words: Oral surgery, bleeding control, haemostatics, guided bone regeneration, platelet concentrates, NOACs (new oral anticoagulants).


Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidative Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Cryptocarya densiflora Blume in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

Ji-Won Park, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Doo-Young Kim, Jung-Hee Kim, In Sik Shin, Sei-Ryang Oh, Sang-Woo Lee, Jae-Hong Kim, Hang Jin, Wan Yi Lee and Kyung-Seop Ahn


Abstract: CD (Cryptocarya densiflora) Blume has traditionally been used as an herbal medicine. In this study, the effects of CDEE (CD ethanol extract) on inflammation were investigated in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. We investigated the effects of CDEE on the production of NO, PGE2 interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We measured the mRNA or protein expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators induced by CDEE in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We explored the expression of Nrf-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO)-1 to elucidate the antioxidative mechanisms. CDEE significantly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, IL-6, IL-1? and TNF-a in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CDEE suppressed the mRNA or protein expression of iNOS, COX-2, and the MAPKs with a reduction in the translocation of NF-?B in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, CDEE significantly increased the expression of HO-1 and NQO-1 with an increase in the translocation of Nrf-2 into the nucleus. These results indicate that CDEE inhibits the LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative responses via suppression of NF-?B activation and the enhancement of Nrf2 activation. We suggest that CDEE may be therapeutic for treating inflammatory diseases.


Key words: Cryptocarya densiflora, inflammation, MAPK, NF-?B, Nrf-2.


Antiasthmatic Effect of Eugenol (4-Allyl-2-Methoxyophenol) Mediated by Both Bronchodilator and Immunomodulatory Properties

Campos Keina Maciele, Teixeira Tatiane Oliveira, Cerqueira-Lima Ana Tereza, Costa Ryan Santos, Carneiro Tamires Cana Brasil, Silva Darizy Flvia, Barreto Mauricio Lima, Pontes-de-Carvalho Lain Carlos, Alcantatara-Neves Neuza Maria and Figueiredo Camila Alexandrina


Abstract: Eugenol, an aromatic product, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, however, little is known about its effect in allergic inflammation mediated by Th2-type cells and cytokines. We examined the pharmacological potential of this compound in a murine model of respiratory allergy to Bt (Blomia tropicalis). For this, AJ mice were sensitized (100 µg/animal s.c.) and challenged (10 g/animal i.n.) with Bt mite extract. Sensitized animals were treated or not with eugenol (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg) and the following parameters were analyzed: number of total cells in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage); EPO (eosinophil peroxidase activity) and histopathological changes in the lungs; serum level of specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a and; concentration of Th2 cytokines on BAL and spleen cultures. In addition, the capability of eugenol in relaxing tracheal smooth muscle was also evaluated. Our results showed that treatment with eugenol significantly reduced the airway inflammation, decreasing the cellular infiltrate, EPO and mucus in the lungs, as well as the production of Th2 cytokines. It was also demonstrated a dilator effect of eugenol observed by the relaxation of normal and hyper-reactivity isolated trachea upon carbachol stimulation. These results suggest that eugenol has potential as an anti-asthmatic drug by both bronchodilator and immunomodulatory properties.


Key words: Asthma; Blomia tropicalis, natural products, eugenol.


Pandemic A/H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus-like Particles Elicited Higher and Broader Immune Responses than the Commercial Panenza Vaccine

Naru Zhang, Yongping Lin, Min Chen, Ho Chuen Leung, Chung Sing Chan, Kwok Man Poon, Jie Zhou, Chung Yan Cheung, Liwei Lu and Bojian Zheng


Abstract: Objectives: The aim was to construct 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza VLPs (virus-like particles) and compare the immunogenicity and protection efficacy with the commercial Panenza vaccine in BALB/c mouse model. Methods: VLPs derived from influenza A/Hong Kong/01/2009 (H1N1) virus were constructed by Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and then characterized by Western blotting analysis and transmission electron microscopy. After single dose vaccination with 3 µg of VLPs and equal amount of Panenza vaccine, the immune responses and efficacy of protection induced by VLPs were compared with those elicited by the Panenza vaccine in 6-8 weeks old female BALB/c mice. Key findings: VLPs could induce higher antibody titer as determined by hemagglutinin inhibition and microneutralization assay. Furthermore, we demonstrated that VLPs induced better antibody response to neuraminidase. In addition, VLP vaccinated mice had stronger cell-mediated immune response. As a result, our VLPs conferred 100% protection while the Panenza vaccine only conferred 67% protection. Conclusion: From the results, we concluded that influenza VLPs are highly immunogenic and they are promising to be developed as an alternative strategy to vaccine production in order to control the spread of influenza viruses.


Key words: Influenza virus, virus-like particle, Panenza vaccine, BALB/c mice.


Quantitative T2*-Mapping of the Knee Using a Spoiled Gradient Echo Sequence at 3 Tesla: Preliminary Results

Georg Riegler, Xeni Deligianni, Vladimir Juras, Štefan Zbýn, Sebastian Apprich, Pavol Szomolanyi, Michael Weber, Oliver Bieri and Siegfried Trattnig


Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate a me-vTE-SPGR (multi echo variable TE Spoiled Gradient Echo Sequence) approach for quantitative T2* mapping of the ME (menisci), the PT (patellar tendon), the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament), the PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) and to compare the results between normal and pathological tissue of the ME in the knee joint at 3T (3 Tesla). Methods: Eighteen consecutive knee patients (35.7 11.6 years) were examined on 3T. In addition to standard morphological MRI, T2*-maps were derived from a 0.7 mm isotropic me-vTE-SPGR scan. T2*-values were assessed by two independent observers using an ROI analysis for the ME (4 different regions: posterior and anterior horn of the medial and lateral meniscus), PT, ACL and PCL. Intra-class correlation between readers was calculated. Results: On morphological MRI, the PT, ACL and PCL were diagnosed as normal in all cases. Degenerative meniscus and meniscal tears were diagnosed in 13 cases and 9 cases, respectively. T2*-values of the menisci on me-vTE-SPGR scans, in relation to morphological imaging, were normal (N = 50; 6.0 0.9 ms); degenerative meniscus (N = 13; 8.0 1.6 ms); meniscal tears (N = 9; 12.9 3.9 ms), with significant differences between all groups (P < 0.05)/ significantly higher T2*-values in degenerative meniscus and meniscal tears. Mean T2* relaxation times for the PT, ACL and PCL were 2.9 0.8 ms, 8.4 1.6 ms and 8.9 1.3 ms respectively. Intra-class correlation values between readers for the ME, PT, ACL and PCL were = 0.962, = 0.927, = 0.594 and = 0.648, respectively. Conclusion: Isotropic 3D (three-dimensional) me vTE-SPGR imaging is able to quantify T2* values of multiple tissues in the knee joint with short T2 relaxation times.


Key words: Magnetic resonance imaging, quantitative imaging, T2* imaging, connective tissue, knee.


Abstract: Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the localization of disease, the staging of disease and for therapy control. The objective of current study focused on the optimization of synthesis, quality control, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 123I radiopharmaceuticals based on the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe. Labeling studies were done both by direct method using chloramine-T according to Khawli (1989) and indirect method using [125I and 131I] SIB according to Zalutsky (1987). Then, biodistribution studies were performed both in normal mice and the one bearing 50 L turpentine for 24h, promoted inflammation in right leg. Furthermore, the ability of the labeled peptide conjugate to bind to human polymorph nuclear leukocytes was determined using in vitro assay. With increasing in pH, yield of labeled FMLF (N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) decreased perhaps because of interaction OH to carboxyl group of SIB. The maximum activity was observed in the right leg which injected with turpentine due to infection and increase in blood circulation. Also, this peptide was conjugated to PMN (Poly morph nuclear) specifically and maximum activity was 66%. The highest absorption of FLMF was seen in kidney, liver, stomach and gut. The small size of this protein causes passing through the glomerular of kidney, so high activity was observed in urine and bladder.


Key words: Molecular imaging, FLMF, radiolabeled peptide.


Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Different Regions of Iran and Compared with Global Standards

Samaneh Babazadeh-Toloti, Hashem Miri-Hakimabad and Laleh Rafat-Motavalli


Abstract: Soils are naturally radioactive, because of their mineral content. An effective dose delivered by photon emitted from natural radioactivity in soil (40K, 238U and 232Th and their progenies) was calculated in this work. Calculations were performed using the ORNL (Oak Ridge national laboratory) human phantom and Monte Carlo N-particle transport code MCNP-4C according to ICRP103 recommendations. Optimum dimensions of each source were determined considering the incident photon energy. Then, these dimensions were employed in the MCNP code input for calculation of conversion factors which relate the effective dose rate and activity. The obtained factors of the 238U series, 232Th series and the 40K in soil are 0.383, 0.314 and 0.019 nSv h-1 per Bq kg-1, respectively. These results were compared with other studies and revealed that there is a good agreement exists between two sets of data. The estimation of the effective dose rates and the annual effective dose for the adult population has been derived in different regions of Iran, considering the natural radioactivity distribution in soil samples from these regions. Finally, the obtained results in this study were compared with UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) 2008 report.


Key words: Effective dose, Natural radioactivity, MCNP code, ORNL phantom.




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Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology is an international, scholarly peer-reviewed journal (print and online) published monthly by David Publishing Company, USA, since 2013.


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