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  Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology

Volume 3, Number 12, December 2013

ISSN:A ISSN 2161-6256; B ISSN 2161-6264
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Volume 3, Number 12A, December 2013
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Abstract: Insects enter in diapause in response to diverse environmental cues. During diapause, insects arrest their development and many genes are down-regulated while a small number of genes uniquely expressed at this time. This review aims to present available data regarding the regulation of diapause in the moth Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Studying the transcriptional regulation of several genes (five heat shock proteins, two storage proteins and one juvenile hormone esterase) showed that these genes may play various roles in the diapause programming. The results show that SnoHsp19.5 gene was consistently expressed, while SnoHsp20.8 was down-regulated in deep diapause and was up-regulated at the termination of diapause. SnoHsc70 may play important roles in assisting protein conformation during specific stages of diapause. SnoHsp83 displays a similar pattern to SnoHsc70 under diapause conditions, when extra larval moults occur, indicating that could be involved in the developmental process that occurs between two moults. Expression of two SnoSP1 and SnoSP2 hexamerin genes was also observed throughout diapause. And the results lead us to the conclusion that larval diapause of S. nonagrioides is associated with continuous synthesis and accumulation of storage proteins. In addition, the transcript level of the carboxylesterase SnoJHER was higher in non-diapausing larvae than in diapausing ones. During the fifth instar of the non-diapausing and the ninth instar of the diapausing larvae, SnoJHER mRNAs reached higher expression levels on the days close to each larval molt.


Key words: Sesamia nonagrioides, diapause, heat shock proteins, storage proteins, juvenile hormone esterase.


Production of Lipase Using Cassava Peel and Sunflower Oil in Solid-State Fermentation: Preliminary Study

Caroline Branco Gerber, Francieli Kaufmann, Gabrieli Nicoletti, Marlia Dalla Costa and Aniela Pinto Kempka


Abstract: Full use of residues from industrial processes is a fundamental necessity of contemporary society, since it avoids impacts to the environment by using residues as inputs for other products of high economic and social importance. In this study, lipase production of the crude enzymatic extracts obtained by Aspergillus niger using cassava peel as substrate and sunflower oil as an inductor was investigated. The optimized cultivation temperature and concentration of inductor were determined using the response surface methodology. The two variables studied exercised influence in the production of lipase in the 95% level of confidence. The response surface obtained indicated that the conditions that maximize lipase activity production were 30.5 C and initial concentration of sunflower oil was 2.5% (w/w). Through this analysis, it is evident that extremes in temperature and concentration of inductor tend to decrease lipase production, since low temperatures decrease metabolism and high temperatures may inactivate the lipase. Optimum lipase yield was 59.8 U/g of dry peel which was fermented for 60 h. Lipase production presents a peak of 61.3 U/g, at 72 h of fermentation. However, this value is statistically equal (p > 0.05) of the value of lipase activity obtained for 60 h and 84 h of fermentation.


Key words: Cassava peel, lipase, production, solid-state fermentation, sunflower oil.


Tunisian Population of the Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola is Still Fully Sensitive to Strobilurin Fungicides

Mouna Naouari, Ali Siah, Mohamed Elgazzah, Philippe Reignault and Patrice Halama


Abstract: Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici) is the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, the most frequently occurring disease on wheat crops worldwide. A set of 163 monoconidial isolates of this fungus were sampled in 2012 from five geographical locations of Tunisia (Bizerte, Bja, Kef, Jendouba and Siliana) in order to examine the status of strobilurin resistance of M. graminicola in this country. The resistance was assessed by using PCR-based mismatch mutation assay that determined the cytochrome b substitution G143A responsible for strobilurin resistance. All isolates were found sensitive since they possessed the wild-type allele G143 conferring sensitivity. This study confirms previous reports on the fungus in Tunisia and reveals that the Tunisian population of M. graminicola remains fully sensitive to strobilurin fungicides. An appropriate management of strobilurin applications in Tunisia is thereby recommended to prevent local development and widespread of resistance, as in Europe, where pathogen populations are fully resistant to strobilurins today.


Key words: Mycosphaerella graminicola, G143A substitution, strobilurin resistance.


In Vitro Detection of Herbicide-Tolerant Fungi Isolated from Pesticides Polluted-Soil

Ahmed Abdel-Megeed, Al-Meshal Areej Suliman, Ashour Eman and Essam Sholkamy


Abstract: Forty-five rhizofungal isolates were isolated, identified and characterized from 11 herbicides polluted-soil. Among the isolates, 10 fungal species proved to be the most potent and promising ones in herbicides tolerance. The herbicides exhibited severe and dramatic effect and modulation on fungal DNA and protein represented in DNA and protein profile. Severely loss in the total soluble cell ions (SCI) and total cell protein percentage (TCPC) concentrations were observed. The loss of SCI by glyphosate, Aspergillus flavus (86.30%) was the most affected one, followed by Penicillium spiculisporus (76.30%), Penicillium verruculosum (64.40%) and Alternaria tenuissima (64%), respectively. For pendimethalin, Alternaria tenuissima (54.01%) was the most affected fungi. For diclofop-methyl, Penicillium spiculisporus (74.20%) was the most affected fungi. The loss of TCPC by glyphosate, Alternaria tenuissima (64.71%) was the most effected fungi, followed by Penicillium spiculisporus (57.14%), respectively. For pendimethalin, A. terreus (54.29%) was the most affected fungi. For diclofop-methyl, Penicillium spiculisporus (60%) was the most affected fungi, followed by Alternaria tenuissima (58.82%), Aspergillus tamarii (55.56%), respectively. The results proved severe reductions and alteration in protein, SCI, TCPC and DNA in fungal strains exposed to these herbicides which might reflex a degree of tolerance occurred during the assimilation of those toxic compounds from the pesticides polluted-soil. 


Key words: Herbicides, tolerance, fungi, polluted-soil, DNA, protein.


Process of Salinisation of a Lagoon and a Coastal Aquifer in Annaba Area (East Algerian)

Mekkakia Mokhtaria, Larbi Djabri, Chemseddine Fehdi, Fethi Baali, Azzedine Hani, Antonio Pulido Bosch and Saad Bouhsina


Abstract: The study area is located in a Mediterranean region, so the effects of the climate variations are very important. The authors contribution to this subject is based on the compilation of many results obtained from dissertations and theses that are carried out under their supervision. The main tool used, in addition to other methods, is the water hydrochemistry as it is proved very useful in obtaining good results and helpful in getting objective interpretations regarding the presence and absence of salinity. Several factors are undertaken to show the presence of salts in waters in the plain, the lithology of the geological formations shows that they are composed of alluvium sediments where the permeability is quite high, and this enables hydraulic communication between the fresh water of the aquifer and saline water of the sea. The study of climate shows a decrease of precipitation which favors an important decrease of recharge rate to the aquifer, and hence a decrease of water resource. The strontium which is a good indicator for the origin of salinity shows a variation that indicates a variation in the distribution of the salinity, and therefore diverse origins of salinity all over the studied area. This can infer the presence of marine invasion in the down-stream part of the aquifer, whereas elsewhere salinity is caused by the presence of evaporitic formation, mainly in the up-stream part of the aquifer. In the lake, salinity is explained by the argillaceous matrix in the bottom of the lake.


Key words: Lake, river, sea, marine invasion, aquifer, transmissivity, evaporitic.


Kinematic Viscosity and Shear Stress of Used Engine Oil

Vojtech Kumbr, Petr Dostl and Jiř Votava


Abstract: The goal of this paper describes kinematic viscosity and shear stress of two used engine oils, which have been taken from two different passenger cars. Kinematic viscosity and shear stress are two of the most important physical behaviours of fluids, especially lubricating fluids. In this paper the authors have focused on engine oil. Knowledge of these properties of engine oil is very important due to its lifetime. The experiments have been done using digital rotary rheometer Anton Paar DV-3 P with use of TR8 spindle and special adapter for a small amount of sample (20 mL). Two different engine oils have been observedfirst from passenger car Renault Scenic with petrol engine (engine capacity 1.6 dm3) and the second from passenger car Škoda Roomster with diesel engine (engine capacity 1.4 dm3). Castrol Magnatec 10W-40 engine oil has been taken from Renault car and Shell Helix Ultra Extra 5W-30 engine oil has been taken from Škoda car. Service interval of change oil has been set to 15,000 km and samples of used engine oils have been taken after 1,500 km. Only first samples of used engine oils have been taken after raid of 20 km. All samples of used engine oils have been compared with new (unused) engine oils same specification. The measured values of kinematic viscosity and shear stress have been modeled using linear function. The coefficients of correlation R have been achieved high values (0.88-0.96). The obtained models can be used to prediction of engine oil flow behaviour.


Key words: Kinematic viscosity, shear stress, engine oil, raid, modeled.


Analysis of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid, Potential Antifertility Agents in Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Seed

Akwasi Ampofo-Yeboah, Helet Lambrechts, Danie Brink, Fletcher Hiten and Evans Afriyie-Gyawu


Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are isomeric triterpenes that are difficult to separate chromatographically. Studies have indicated that both OA and UA have antifertility properties in several livestock species, suppressing attainment of puberty, gonad function and gamete production. Being able to determine the presence and quantity of the OA and UA in moringa and pawpaw seeds will allow for calculation of optimal inclusion levels of these acids in animal diets for antifertility-activity. The purpose of the study was thus to quantify the levels of OA and UA in Moringa and pawpaw seed powder by means of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Only OA was detected in moringa seeds at a concentration level of 0.508 µg/g 0.032 µg/g dry weight. UA and OA could not be detected in pawpaw seeds used in this study. The presence of OA in moringa seeds suggest that the seeds can be included in tilapia diets as a potential antifertility treatment to control precocious breeding in tilapia culture in small scale farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further studies are warranted to determine the levels of OA and UA composition in moringa seeds from other parts of the Sub-Saharan Africa (other than Zambia).


Key words: Triterpenoids, OA, moringa seed, antifertility, UA, liquid chromatography.


Phytochemical Constituents and Allelopathic Effects of Some Medicinal Plants Extract on the Soil Algal Diversity

Mustafa Ahmed Fawzy, Awatief Fahmey Hifney, Ahmed Abdel-Salam Issa and Gamal Gareib


Abstract: Phytochemical constituents of the shoots and roots extract of chosen eight medicinal plants (Plantago major, Verbesina encelioides, Glinus lotoides, Helotropium supinum, Mentha microphylla, Euphorbia hirta, Juncus subulatus and Convolvulus arvensis) were estimated using standard qualitative analysis. The extract contained alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phenols, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in some medicinal plants while others contain some only of these phytochemical components. Allelopathic effect of the various concentrations of the extracts on the soil algal diversity was also investigated. Wollea saccata was the only algal species disappeared from all applied investigated plant extracts. Phormidium richardsii, Monoraphidium braunii, Eunotia verneris and Nitzschia bilobata were the highly sensitive algal species to all applied shoot and root extract from all tested plants, they disappeared from most of the studied plants. On the other hand, Phormidium animale and Chlorella neustonice were highly tolerant algal species to all applied extracts. Counts of Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae were decreased by addition of some investigated medicinal plants extracts such as Juncus subulatus, Convolvulus arvensis and Euphorbia hirta. So the authors can use these plants extracts in biocontrol of the nuisance of algal bloom or any other microorganisms. Also, these plants may be useful to recover eutrophic water which needs further investigation.


Key words: Allelopathy, allelochemicals, Plantago major, Verbesina encelioides, Glinus lotoides, Phormidium richardsii, Monoraphidium braunii.


Yield Attributes and Oil Safety in the Hyperaccumulator Canola Plant Grown in a Bioremediated Sewaged Soil

Hussein Fawzy Abouziena, Mohamed Saber, Essam Hoballah, Soad El-Ashry and Alaa Mohamed Zaghloul


Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Abu-Rawash sewage farm to appraise the effect of certain novel remediative amendments on the quality of oil as well as the vegetative parameters and yield criteria of canola plant used as hyperaccumulator for the remediation of sewaged soils. The treatments included fallow soil (irrigated without growing canola), soil cultivated with canola (Brassica napus L.) and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), soil inoculation with Thiobacillus sp. (a mixture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidant), soil treated with a mixture of 250 mg bentonite plus 250 mg rock phosphate/kg soil and inoculated with phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB), and soil treated with all the aforementioned remediative amendments. Results indicated that the vegetative parameters and yield criteria of canola plant did not exhibit any serious adverse impact under all treatments applied. The concentrations of Zn and Cu in canola oil extracted from plants grown in soil inoculated with AM and/or Thiobacillus sp. far exceeded the safe permissible levels. On the other hand, the content of both PTEs in the oil extracted from canola plants grown in soil treated with either probentonite or with mixture of all remediative amendments followed the permissible safe levels.


Key words: Canola, bioremediation of sewaged soil, permissible levels of PTEs in canola oil, phytoremediation, Thiobacillus sp., arbuscular mycorrhiza.


Impact of Particle Size, Thermal Processing, Fat Inclusion and Moisture Addition on Pellet Quality and Protein Solubility of Broiler Feeds

Keysuke Muramatsu, Alex Maiorka, Isabel Cristina Mores Vaccari, Renata Nuernberg Reis, Fabiano Dahlke, Adelar Almeida Pinto, Uislei Antônio Dias Orlando, Marcelo Bueno and Monica Imagawa


Abstract: The present study evaluated the effect of feed particle size, thermal processing, several levels of fat inclusion and moisture addition on pellet quality and protein solubility in potassium hydroxide (KOH) in a corn, soybean meal and animal by products based broiler diets. The different processing factors were combined in a 2 ´ 4 ´ 4 ´ 2 factorial arrangement in an eight randomized block consisting of eight production series: two particle sizes (coarse: 1,041 microns and medium: 743 microns), four fat inclusion levels at the mixer (15, 25, 35 and 45 g/kg of feed), four moisture addition levels in the conditioner (0, 7, 14 and 21 g/kg of feed) and two thermal processing treatments (conditioner-pellet press treatment or conditioner-expander-pellet treatment) which resulted in 64 different processed feeds. For the determination of the pellet durability index (PDI), the amount of intact pellets and protein solubility determinations, eight feed samples (replicates) were collected for each treatment. The data were transformed using a variation of Box-Cox transformation in order to fit a normal distribution (p > 0.05). Adding moisture up to 21 g/kg of feed in the conditioner improved pellet quality of the diets (p < 0.05). Expansion of diets before pelleting improved (p < 0.05) PDI and amount of intact pellets by 26% and 31%, respectively, as compared to a simple conditioning-pelleting feed processing. Expander treatment (at 110 C) decreased (p < 0.05) protein solubility in KOH from 686 g/kg to 643 g/kg total protein as compared to pelleting process (at 80-82 C). The amount of intact pellets reduced from 773 g/kg to 746 g/kg of feed (p < 0.05) as particle size increased from medium to coarse grinding. Pellet quality was significantly reduced with fat inclusion levels higher than 35 g/kg of diet.


Key words: Pellet, feed, moisture, fat, thermal.

Volume 3, Number 12B, December 2013
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Abstract: With the increasing interest on natural products discovery, utilization of plant parts which are commonly disregarded is another breakthrough. This study sought to determine the secondary metabolites present, phenolic contents, radical scavenging activities and antibacterial properties of 10 selected ornamental flowers which were Adenium obesum, Allamanda cathartica, Bougainvillea glabra, Catharanthus roseus, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Heliconia subulata, Ixora coccinea, Mussaenda philippica, Tecoma stans and Torenia fournieri, from Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. The ethanolic crude extracts were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) phytochemical screening. Total phenolics expressed as mg AAE/g sample were determined through Folin-Ciocalteu method. Radical scavenging activities were measured using DPPH assay. Antibacterial activities were assessed through TLC bioautography. To quantify bacterial susceptibility of C. pulcherrima, MIC and MBC were employed in the ethyl acetate sub-fraction. TLC showed different types of phenolics, alkaloids, essential oils and terpenes. T. fournieri showed the highest total phenolics with 155 mg AAE/g while H. subulatahad showed the lowest with 3.50 mg AAE/g. Measurement of IC50 showed that H. subulata had the highest antioxidant activity followed by T. fournieri with 303 ppm and 320 ppm, respectively. H. subulata having the least amount of total phenolics had greatest radical scavenging activity. This indicates that other than phenolics, other metabolites can pose great antioxidant activities. The antibacterial testing showed that M. philippica, I. coccinea, H. subulata, C. pulcherrima and A. cathartica were bioactive against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. MIC and MBC of C. pulcherrima ethyl acetate sub-fraction is within the range of 2.5-10 mg/mL.


Key words: Phytochemical, phenolics, antioxidants, antibacterial, ornamental flowers.


Multi-location Evaluation of Turmeric Genotypes in Nigeria

Amadi Charles Okechukwu, Olojede Olujide Adeyemi, Eleazu Chinedu, Obasi Chioma Peggy and Nwokocha Christopher Chukwuma


Abstract: Fifteen turmeric genotypes from the germplasm held at National Root Crops Research Institute Umudike, Nigeria, were evaluated during the season of 2012-2013 at four locationsJos (8.3833N, 7.1833E, 1,200 m a.s.l.), Otobi (7.11667N and 8.08333E), Umudike (5.4758N, 7.5489E) and Igbariam (6.4N and 6.93333E)in order to select high yielding and stable turmeric cultivars with good quality for release in Nigeria. At each location, the experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications. Plot size was 9 m2. Data were collected on sprout count, plant height, number of tillers, number of leaves, main pseudo stem girth, rhizome number and weight. Analysis of variance was carried out on the combined data using GenStat Discovery Edition software. Results based on the combined data from four locations indicate that turmeric genotypes did not vary in percentage emergence and number of leaves. However, they varied in height, main pseudo stem girth, tillering, number and yield of fresh rhizomes. The effect of location on all attributes was significant (P < 0.05) with Jos location giving consistently the least values for all attributes thus suggesting that this location may not be suitable for the commercial production of turmeric. Genotype by environment interaction for most attributes was not significant indicating that the genotypes responded the same way across the locations. Ten genotypes, viz., UT39, UT44, UT46, UT58, UT50, UT14, UT41, UT6, UT38 and UT35, are identified as promising and require further evaluation as pre-condition for nomination for official release to farmers.


Key words: Turmeric, genotypes, variation, rhizomes, yield.


Serological Detection of Tomato Pepino mosaic virus in Morocco

Amal Souiri, Saaid Amzazi, Hayat Laatiris, Moulay Mustapha Ennaji and Mustapha Zemzami


Abstract: Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), monopartite RNA virus, 6,500 pb, belonging to Flexiviridae and Potexvirus group, is highly infectious and easily transmissible. Its economic impact is major for the tomato producers countries. Prevention, based on early virus detection is the only effective control measure. Monoclonal antibodies appeared to be very useful tool. The authors used for the production of monoclonal antibodies hybridomas technique, by fusing spleen cells of immunized BALB/c mice to PepMV and SP2/O cancerous cells. The aim of this work is to produce hybridomas producers of Mab that could be used for ELISA in Morocco. At the same time, these efforts will serve to decrease expenses of producers concerning phytosanitory control. We obtained 16 hybridomas lines producers of Mab specific for PepMV. They were tested for efficiencies in ELISA and two lines were retained for production of Mab on large scale (1B11-G10 and 5A1-G5). Isotyping of these two lines showed that they are belonging to IgG1 class and easily purified by affinity chromatography in agarose column by protein A. The conjugation of these two antibodies to alkaline phosphatase has been verified by DAS-ELISA. These antibodies will enable to diagnose the disease from infected tomato plants, integrating several serological tests to control it and target the actions of struggles. 


Key words: Pepino mosaic virus, tomato, monoclonal antibody, hybridoma, serological test, early detection.


Abstract: A new inexpensive vineyard protection against hailstorm has been realized and tested. The system has been designed and organized in such a way to perform autonomously local activities to physically control the protection of the vineyard but also to transmit information toward a remote control. Each row has an umbrella designed by the authors which, unlike other commercial solutions, protects the product without hindering all the mechanical activities typical of a modern vineyard. Locally the single umbrella uses an electronic card for the management and a ZigBee mesh telecommunication network to transmit data to a central control unit which manages the protection. Because of its efficiency, a Raspberry-Pi control card has been chosen as central unit. Finally, a WiMAX connection was chosen to remotely control the system, thus allowing the authors to overcome distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The system has been realized and tested for some months in field also during a hailstorm. The results of these tests proved how the system is easy to use and effectively protects against hail; moreover the authors proved the high reliability of the mechanical components which allow the authors to lower the maintenance costs.


Key words: Anti hail, vineyard, WiMAX, ZigBee, Raspberry-Pi, remote control.


Genetic Divergence among Progenies Resulting from the Crossing of Groups Coffee Timor Hybrid and Dilla & Alghe

Janine Magalhães Guedes, Juliana Costa Rezende, João Marcos Rodrigues Andrade Lara, Samuel Pereira Carvalho, Antonio Alves Pereira and Alex Mendonça de Carvalho


Abstract: This study aimed to agronomically and morphologically characterize, as well as analyze the genetic divergence of Dilla & Alghe ´ Timor hybrid progenies of the coffee germplasm bank of Minas Gerais in Brazil to improve the breeding and management schemes of the hybrids. Forty-two morpho-agronomic traits were evaluated and the generalized Mahalanobis distance was used to quantify the genetic divergence among progenies. Tocher clustering, unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method and canonical variation analysis were employed as clustering strategies. The Tocher and UPGMA methods have been separated the progenies into eight and five groups, respectively. Analysis of the relative contribution of each characteristic to genetic dissimilarity highlighted the characteristics of production in liters in 2009, production notes in 2009, and average uniformity of maturation in 2009 as those that contributed most to obtaining genetic divergence. The authors observed that the first three canonical variables accounted for over 99% of the total variance observed in the full set of analyzed characteristics. High variability was observed among the 15 progenies of Dilla & Alghe ´ Timor hybrid progenies. The progenies MG0589 and MG0592, MG0593 and MG0589, MG0591 and MG0589, MG0589 and MG0588, MG0589 and MG0583 were the most suitable crosses for exploring the genetic variability in Dilla & Alghe ´ Timor hybrid generated from the germplasm bank of Minas Gerais. Through these crossovers, it is expected to get new coffee cultivars with desirable agronomic characteristics, as resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae and some breeds of Hemileia vastatrix.


Key words: Coffea arabica, multivariate analysis, germplasm bank, genetic improvement, morpho-agronomic traits.


First Estimations of Plant Acridone Alkaloid Implemented in Mushroom Mycelium Growth

?lga Tsivileva, Inna Uchaeva, Alexei Pankratov, Tatyana Kudryavtseva, Yurii Markovich and Valentina Nikitina


Abstract: Acridone derivatives are widespread in nature and known to be capable of having a variety of biological activities, but there is not any information on the acridone series compounds in relation to higher fungi, including edible mushrooms available in literature at all. Research into the character of the mode of action of these substances on various living systems is necessary to elucidate the possible unfavorable biological consequences and improve measures on their ecological safety. In this work, the effect of acridone-N-acetic acid on mushroom mycelial growth was tested and the culture of basidiomycete Lentinula edodes (shiitake) has been used. The influence of acridone additive upon the fungal mycelium growth on liquid (submerged) and agar media was examined within the wide concentration range of acridone carboxy-derivative. The results obtained testify to the relative ecological safety of these substances for mushroom organism, and to the mycelial growth promoting capability of acridone-N-acetic acid at favorable concentrations, both under the solid-phase and liquid-phase culture conditions. In fact, the very first step toward the investigation into the systems macromycete-acridone series compound has been made.


Key words: Mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, acridone-N-acetic acid, solid-phase fungal culture, submerged fungal culture.


Abstract: The largest and most important family in Russian conifers is Pinaceae (27-29 species). The most important problems in the field of systemitics concern some critical taxa. In the result of authors research, the new signs of vegetative and reproductive organs have been checked out and elaborated. It leads to the clarifying of new taxonomic status and geographical distribution of certain critical taxa. A set of species are threatened and need special measures for their conservation. There are 13 species and one variety which are included into the Red Data Book of Russian Federation.


Key words: Conifers of Russia, Pinaceae, systematics, arboriculture, conservation.


Effect of Combinations of Sucrose and Cryoprotectants on the Survival of Catfish Embryos (Pangasidae hypophthamus)

Nguyen Thi Hong, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Nguyen Thi Uoc, Nguyen Trung Thanh, Nguyen Thi Hiep, Nguyen Viet Linh, Nguyen Van Hanh, Pham Van Khanh, Ha Thi Ngoc Nga, Truong Van Thuong and Bui Xuan Nguyen


Abstract: Although cryopreservation of embryos has been used in most terrestrial animals, the application of this technique has not been succeeded for aquatic animals. In this study, the authors investigate the effect of different combinations of sucrose (SUC, C12H22O11) and cryoprotectants (CPAs) on the survival of the catfish embryos (Pangasidae hypophthalmus) at low temperatures (4, 0 and -20 C) for short-term storage. For this aim, embryos with somites and optic cups were exposed to different combinations of sucrose with methanol (SUC + MeOH), 1.2-propylene glycol (SUC + PROH) and ethylene glycol (SUC + EG) at four concentrations ratios:  (1) 0.5 M SUC + 0.5 M CPA; (2) 1 M SUC + 0.5 M CPA; (3) 0.5 M SUC + 1 M CPA; (4) 1 M SUC + 1 M CPA for 40 min at 4, 0 and -20 C. Embryos kept in water at room temperature (RT), 4, 0 and -20 C were used as controls. The survival rate was expressed as a percentage of hatched embryos per total embryos treated. The results showed that the hatching rate declined significantly when embryos were stored in water at 0 C and -20 C. For embryos at 0 C storage, the highest survival rate (87.78%) was obtained with 1 M SUC + 1 M MeOH combination while at -20 C, only embryos in the combined treatments of 0.5 M SUC + 1 M EG and 0.5 M SUC + 1 M PROH reached the hatching stage (40% and 83.33%, respectively). In conclusion, the results showed that the catfish embryos are sensitive to sub-zero temperatures and the combined treatment of 0.5 M sucrose and 1 M propylene glycol can be used to protect catfish embryos from damages caused by low temperature (0 C and -20 C).


Key words: Catfish, cryoprotectants, embryos, low temperature, sucrose.




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 Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A and Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, the monthly professional academic journals, particularly emphasizes new research results in realm of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and veterinary, fisheries, agricultural engineering, food science, agricultural economy and so on. Articles interpreting practical application of up-to-date technology are also welcome.


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