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  Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

Volume 7, Number 12, December 2013

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Volume 7, Number 12, December 2013
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Physico-Chemical Studies of Platinum-Ruthenium Catalysts of Oxidative Conversion of Methane to Synthesis-Gas

Tungatarova Svetlana, Baizhumanova Tolkyn, Shlygina Irina, Shapovalov Anatolii, Zhumabek Manapkhan and Kassymkan Kaisar


Abstract: The results of studying the interaction of H2 and O2 with Pt-, Ru- and Pt-Ru catalysts supported on 2% Ce/(?+a)-Al2O3, at varying the ratios and concentrations of supported elements by using the temperature-programmed desorption method are presented. It has been shown that H2 is adsorbed as four forms, differing in the structure, temperature, order and activation energy of desorption: ?2ads, ?2+ads, ?ads, ?at (?des > 873 K). The relationship of activity and selectivity of Pt-Ru catalysts with the presence of active centers able to adsorb atomic hydrogen with desorption energy (Edes) = 60-70 kJ/mol in the catalytic oxidation of methane was determined. It was found that the O2 adsorbed as two forms differing in the structure, temperature and activation energy of desorption. It has been determined that changing the atomic ratio of elements in the catalysts significantly affect on the adsorption of O2. The introduction of ruthenium into the platinum catalyst increases the oxygen adsorption; and the surface is stabilized in a homogeneous state. Quantum chemical calculations of the activation of C-H bonds in a molecule of methane on RumPtn (m + n = 4) clusters have been carried out.


Key words: Pt-Ru catalysts, selective catalytic oxidation of methane, adsorption.


LO-RAY-LIGH® Diffraction Gratings in UV-VIS Spectroscopy

Uwe Oppermann, Marion Egelkraut-Holtus and Tatsuyoshi Fujiwara


Abstract: It has been more than half a century since the release of the first Shimadzu UV-VIS (UV-visible) spectrophotometer QB-50 in 1952, and during this time more than 160,000 UV-VIS spectrometers have been produced and installed in a wide variety of different applications. A lot of technical innovations have been implemented to improve the performance and significantly reduce the stray light levels. The latest innovation during development of sophisticated spectrophotometers is based on a new holographic exposure method and optimized etching process which has made it possible to produce both high-efficient and exceptionally low stray light gratings. These LO-RAY-LIGH® gratings have guaranteed values of stray light at the intermediate position between zero-order and first-order lights. The values are measured by Shimadzus laser stray-light-measuring system. The latest development in the series of UV-VIS spectrophotometers is the UV-2700 which is a true double beam double monochromator system in a compact design for high-precision spectral analysis of a wide range of samples including organic and inorganic compounds, biological samples, optical materials and photovoltaics. The high performance optical system is designed with LO-RAY-LIGH® diffraction gratings, featuring highest efficiency and exceptionally low stray light. The spectrophotometer operates in the wavelength range from 185 nm to 900 nm and allows highly sophisticated applications such as direct measurement of high density samples up to 8 absorbance units without dilution.


Key words: LO-RAY-LIGH®, stray light, diffraction grating, spectrophotometer, single monochromator, holographic grating, high efficiency, double monochromator.


Mesoporous Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Doped Polyanilines

Maksim Zagorny, ?lexander Zhygotsky, Tatyana Lobunets, Anatoliy Pozniy and Andrey Ragulya


Abstract: Photocatalytic activity of doped polyaniline nanopowders with different molar ratio of An/O (aniline/oxidizer) has been studied in the process of photocatalytic decolorization of aqueous solutions of methylene blu?. By means of scanning electron microscopy and low-temperature N2 adsorption method, it was found that doped PANI (polyaniline) nanopowders have the particles size of 30-50 nm with the specific surface area of 20-35 m2g-1. It was found that PANI photocatalytic activity essentially depends on molar ratio of An/O and adsorption interactions between the dye molecules and catalytic active centers on PANI surface and these interactions are greatly affected by pH of the solution 9.2. An optimum of the synergetic effect is found for an initial molar ratio of aniline to oxidizer equal to 0.8.


Key words: Photocatalyst, doped polyaniline, conducting polymer, mesoporous structure.


A New Approach on Modification Reactions of Atherton-Todd, Betti, Mannich and Doebner with Arsine, Stibine and Bismuthine in Organometallic Chemistry

Aibassov Erkin Zhakenovich, Baiguzhin Adil Alibekovich, Tusupbaev Nesipbay, Imanbaev Klysh and Serikbaeva Gulbarshyn Kuanyshkanovna


Abstract: A new approach modification reactions Atherton-Todd, Betty, Mannich and Doebner reactions with of arsine, stibine and bismuthine have been proposed in organometallic chemistry of these elements. These new reactions can be used for the synthesis of drugs and biologically active organic compound of arsenic, antimony and bismuth. A possible new mechanism of the reaction is proposed.


Key words: Atherton-Todd, Betti, Mannich and Doebner reactions, arsine, stibine, bismuthine.


Synthesis and Characterization of Cured Allyl/Propargyl Ether Novolac Resins

Boris Bulgakov, Denis Kalugin, Alexander Babkin, Artem Malakho, Alexey Kepman and Victor Avdeev


Abstract: ? new kind of modified thermoset resins were synthesized by phase-transfer Williamson reaction from novolac resin and mixtures of allyl- and propargyl-chlorides. The compositions of the resins were defined by 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonanse) spectroscopy and the dependence of the cured materials properties on the composition was established. Increase of a propargyl content resulted in char yield raise and the maximum value had been found for propargylated resin58%. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry)-analysis of the resins has demonstrated that exothermic enthalpy of the curing process could be adjusted by varying the content of propargyl and allyl groups in the resin. 


Key words: Allyl ether resins, propargyl ether resins, addition-cure phenolics, heat resistance.


Abstract: MCC (micro crystalline cellulose) is a very important product in pharmaceuticals, foods, cosmetics and other industries. MCC can be made from any natural cellulose materials that have high content of cellulose ranging from pure cellulose, commercial grade cellulose to lignocellulosic materials. In this work, Beeswing (-20 L) and Chaff (5/8) which are the parts of corn cobs were used as raw materials to produce MCC via alkaline degradation, bleaching and hydrolysis. The optimum conditions of alkaline degradation, bleaching and hydrolysis were studied. MCC samples that prepared from -20 L and 5/8 were characterized through XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and compared with the commercial MCC (Avicel PH 101). The results show that the degree of crystallinity of alkaline degradation, bleaching and hydrolysis obtained at 10% of NaOH 95 C for 2 h, NaClO2 1.5 g 10% of acetic acid 0.5 mL 70 C for 2 h, 2 N of HCl, 105 C for 1 h showed maximum values which are 77.07%, 75.07% and 86.84%, respectively. The degree of crystallinity and the morphology of prepared MCC correspond to that of Avicel PH 101 industrial investment has been studied, the benefits of micro crystalline cellulose production (MCC) is 3,447 baht/kg. The investment of the plant is 7,263,514 baht and the breakeven point is around 6 years.


Key words: Microcrystalline cellulose, corn cob, lignocellulosic, XRD, pharmaceutical, crystalline index.


Abstract: In this work, a method is proposed to control silver nanoparticle dimensions produced by laser ablation varying the ablation time and introducing a sonication phase between ablation and the successive deposition on the substrate. The absorption spectra during laser ablation show a main band, which identifies the dimensions of main particles. The appearance of secondary bands indicates the beginning of an aggregation process with the formation of a small concentration of particles which are spheroid in shape. SEM (secondary electron microscope) images of particle produced with different ablation times confirm the results of absorption measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cathodo-luminescence spectroscopy indicate a high reactivity of the nanoparticles deposited on a substrate. They react with oxygen in the air forming an oxide layer which reveals a luminescence in the blue region. 


Key words: Silver nanoparticles, silver oxide, cathodo-luminescence, absorbance.


Exchange Interactions at the Interface FM/AFM Nanocomposite Obtained by Mechanochemical Synthesis

Lenine Campos Miranda, Fabio Cavalcanti Lopes, Andr Galembeck and Eduardo Padron Hernndez


Abstract: This paper presents a study of the relationship between the magnetic properties and microstructure of nanocomposite Ni/MnO, Ni/CoO, Co/MnO, Co/CoO. The objective is to understand how the coupling interface FM/AFM (ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic) manifests itself in magnetic response of these materials to an applied field. Sample preparation was performed using mechanochemical synthesis by means of a ball mill planetary type high power at normal atmosphere. The characterization was done by XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometry). Analyzing the XRD peaks of the samples studied, there was a decrease in the average particle diameter with increasing milling time, which is important in the magnetic interactions of the atoms of the surface. In addition, the diffraction pattern showed formation of new phases by oxidation interfering with the magnetic measurements. Analyses by SEM show chipboard multiform nano- and micrometer-sized grains on the surface of the clusters being responsible for the interaction. The magnetic measurements show a strong coupling between the phases present in nanocomposites showing once again that the MS (mechanosynthesis) is a powerful technique for this kind of purpose. The effect of the decrease in crystallite size leads to large variations of magnetic properties of the material which have been specifically observed changes in HC (coercive field) in the RM (remanent magnetization) and SM (saturation magnetization). The decrease in crystallite size in the course of grinding intensifies the effects that depend on the surface-to-volume ratio of the material. M vs. T measures were taken for different values of applied field and found a jump in the moment of the sample near the Nel temperature of the antiferromagnetic.


Key words: Nanocomposites, mechanical alloying, hysteresis curve, coupling FM/AFM Nel temperature.


Abstract: The aim of this research was to develop the porous spherical cellulose production from corn cob as an exfoliating agent for cosmetic industries. In process development of the porous spherical cellulose production from corn cob, it was found that alkaline extraction with 10% sodiumhydroxide gave 85.86% purity of cellulose and the crystallinity index of the pulp of 76.08%. Then, the obtained pulp was extracted with acid sodium chlorite. It was found that the acid sodium chlorite extraction increased the cellulose from 85.86% to 91.86%. The obtained pulp was hydrolyse dwithdilute hydrochloric solution. The result shows that the crystallinity increased from 71.13% to 86.31% with smaller crystallite size compared to that obtained acid sodium chlorite extraction. The hydrolysis pulp was used to prepare porous spherical cellulose which has homogeneous and rough surface. The porosity and pore volume of the porous spherical cellulose increased when the amount of calcium carbonate as porogen was increased. The porous spherical cellulose was prepared from the optimized conditions and the physical and chemical properties were analysed and compared with standard commercial beads (Sephadex G-25). It was found that the porous spherical cellulose had particle size and pH value similar to the standard value. Hazardous substances such as arsenic, lead and mercury were not found in the obtained porous spherical cellulose. The consumers test shows that 87% of consumers accepted the product and the overall complacency was great.


Key words: Extraction of cellulose, agricultures waste, corn cob, cellulose beads, cross-linked.


Abstract: The catalytic system is investigated in a computer chromatography. The sorbent represents the nanostructure composite with hardpolymer electrolyt. As the nanostructure polymeric system, it used dendrimer who are absorbed on a surface with formation of monolayer. In chromatography column watch dimensional effect. The size of a particle carries out a role of temperature. In the article, investigate solvatation and dimensional effect reaction self-assembling gas dimmers. Distance critical radius H+ transfer define equation: rcr = 2rs. Reaction accompaniment transfer energy. Transfer energy realize on exchange-resonanse mechanism.


Key words: Computer chromatography, the nanostructured catalysts, dendrimer, self-ass?mbly, supramolekular structures, transfer of energy, exchange energy, dimensional effect.


Cardiac Tissue Engineering with the Aid of Polyhydroxybutyrate Membranes and Nanofibers

Nadezhda N. Agladze, Nina I. Doronina and Konstantin I. Agladze


Abstract: The PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) films were reported recently as promising materials for tissue involving cultivation of dermoblasts, fibroblasts and connective tissue. In the present work, the authors studied PHB scaffolds for the cardiac tissue engineering, either in a form of thin membranes or electrospun fiber mats. The results show that cardiac cells of various origins can be successfully grown on PHB substrates, in the both forms: membrane and nanofiber matrix. Functioning of obtained tissue patches was tested by visual observation of contractions and with the aid of optical mapping, i.e., registration of excitation waves with fluorescent markers. The latter one allowed ensuring the fact that cultured cells represented electrophysiological syncytium, and the PHB scaffold showed its full compatibility with the excitability of cardiac cells.


Key words: Cardiomyocyte, tissue engineering, excitability, polyhydroxybutyrate.


Abstract: Chitosan oligomers (average Dp~4) are known for their antifungal activity and wood decay resistance. These oligomers are susceptible to moisture, and promote yeast growth upon air exposure after a sufficient length of time. Chitosan oligomers of three different states viz. completely dried, freshly prepared and highly viscous form, were prepared to compare their in-vitro antifungal activities against three brown-rot fungi, two sapstain and one mould fungus using agar nutrient medium. Additionally, a mixture of chitosan oligomers and boric acid was used for wood treatment. The nutrient medium bioassay results show that all states of chitosan oligomers inhibited the growth of tested basidiomycetes fungi, but not sapstain and mould fungi. Subsequently, wood decay results confirm antifungal activity of chitosan oligomers plus boron against basidiomycetes, but highlighted their leachability upon water exposure. 


Key words: Chitosan oligomers, nitrous acid deaminative depolymerisation, antifungal activity, boric acid, wood decay resistance.


Assessment of Nutrients of Escamoles Ant Eggs Limotepum apiculatum M. by Spectroscopy Methods

Virginia Melo-Ruiz, Tomas Quirino-Barreda, Concepcin Calvo-Carrillo, Karina Snchez-Herrera and Horacio Sandoval-Trujillo


Abstract: Edible insects, escamoles ant eggs of the Formicidae family are consumed by cultural tradition at rural communities and by sensory characteristics at high class restaurants of Mexico; however, people ignore the importance of insect consumption in the nutrition of humans. Laboratory spectroscopy methods in food analysis represent benefits in time and precision. The aim of this study is to assess macronutrients and micronutrients of escamoles and eggs by spectroscopic methods to inform population the benefits they provide in health and to mention the advantage in the use of these techniques at laboratory work. Samples were gather the second week of March and April 2012, at Hidalgo State and analyze moisture and macronutrients by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemistry) methods, amino acids by cation exchange chromatography, tryptophan was determined by a colorimeter method, fatty acids by GC (gas chromatography) using helium as a carrier (AOAC), fat soluble vitamins A, D and E by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), and minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometers and phosphorus by colorimeter (AOAC). Data showed high amount in proteins, lipids and minerals; low in fiber and soluble carbohydrates; contained all essential amino acids. Fatty acids contain monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Fat soluble vitamins A, D and E. Minerals: sodium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and manganese. Escamoles ant eggs include polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for mental development, vitamin A to prevent eye diseases, vitamin E as antioxidant and vitamin D involved in calcium absorption that low intake, impair grow and bone health. Iron and zinc contained anemia. Regarding the laboratory benefits, needs less expensive chemicals, testing is clean, rapid and easy results of multiple samples, but it is required to handle by qualified chemists. In conclusion, data may change according to biotic and abiotic conditions of the environment; however, escamoles have all nutrients in adequate balance to improve human health; and provide faster and precise results.


Key words: Edible insects, escamoles ant eggs, nutrition, spectroscopy methods.


Abstract: The concentration and chemical speciation of heavy metals including REEs (rare earth elements), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) in domestic sludge and electroplating sludge were investigated, and those of the domestic sludge were compared with those of natural soil. Removal of heavy metals in electroplating sludge was studied with bio-surfactants (saponin and sophorolipid) by batch and column experiments. The results suggested that heavy metals have greater concentrations and exist as more relatively unstable fraction in sludge than those in Natural soil. Nonionic saponin is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals from the electroplating sludge, and mainly reacts with carbonate state (i.e., F3) and Fe-Mn oxide state (i.e., F5) fractions. The recovery efficiency of heavy metals in leachates from the electroplate sludge was attained 88%-97%. Saponin can be reused and be a promising and cost-effective material for the removal of heavy metals in sludge.


Key words: Sludge, chemical speciation, heavy metals, bio-surfactant, column washing.


A Novel Approach to Clean Tanning Technology

Jing Li, Lan Yan, Bi Shi, Bin Li and Jing Zhang


Abstract: Traditional chrome tanning technology is still widely used today. In this technology, chrome shaving as well as chrome contained effluent in tanning and retanning processes is a big issue in the industry. Wet white tanning technology has been gaining in importance in recent years, but in general, the comprehensive performance of chrome-free tanned leather is not comparable with that of chrome tanned leather. In the present work, chrome-free tanning and chrome tanning are combined in a reversed procedure, which produces leather with chrome tanned leather quality without chrome tanned leather waste problems. In this procedure, a special amphoteric organic compound, no pickle, no salt chrome-free tanning agent TWT was used to tan delimed hides (no pickle) making wet white with shrinking temperature at 80-85 oC. Then, new method called reversed tanning further process the wet white into chrome-tanned crust. In this reversed method, retanning, fatliquoring and coloring processes were carried out before chrome tanning. This technology eliminates chrome waste issue in tanning, shaving, post tanning processes. The chrome contained effluent is only concentrated in the last chrome tanning process. The leather made with this technology has complete conventional chrome-tanned leather quality. In this way, chrome leather quality without chrome waste problems was achieved. So, it is a new clean tanning technology. 


Key words: Chrome-free tanning, wet-white, reversed tanning process, chrome tanning, post tanning.


Abstract: Hydrocyclone is widely used in closed-circuit grinding process. However, in the first classification operation of coarse particles with high pulp density, the shortcomings of traditional cyclone are that the grinding cycle load is much high, the apex of cyclone is easily to be blocked and classification efficiency is less. Specifically, the problems of traditional cyclone used in grinding process are as follows: (1) Mill utilization factor is low and its handling capacity is small; (2) Coarse particles mixing in cyclone overflow affects the following separation process and fine particles mixing in underflow causes over-grinding, which affects the total recovery rate of valuable minerals; (3) High grinding cycle load leads to large amount of high-density slurry pumping, which causes high energy consumption and severe wear of cyclones, pipelines and pumps. The applications of new type pre-classification hydrocyclone with centrifugal volute in the first classification process of iron mine mill are introduced in the paper. Pulp particles fed in the centrifugal volute are arranged in advance, so that coarse particles can be far away from the overflow pipe, which can reduce the short circuit current to avoid coarse particles entering overflow and improve classification efficiency and accuracy of cyclone. The strong points of the new cyclone in the coarse classification operation are as follows: (1) Finer overflow and less fine particles mixing in underflow improves classification efficiency more than 10%; (2) Lower ball mill load cycle improves ball capacity more than 10%; (3) Grinding energy consumption reduces by more than 20% and cyclone feed pump reduces energy consumption by more than 12%. In short, new type pre-classification cyclone with centrifugal volute solves the problems of fine particles mixing in underflow, high grinding cycle load and less classification efficiency in the coarse classification operation. Therefore, it has broad application prospects in ferrous metal and non-ferrous metal ore dressing plant. 


Key words: Centrifugal volute, hydrocyclone, pre-classification.




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Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (ISSN: 1934-7375), a monthly professional academic journal, particularly emphasizes new research results in realm of chemistry and chemical engineering, which is an international, scholarly, and peer-reviewed journal (print and online) published monthly by David Publishing Company, USA. It provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies and reviews related to Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Green Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Material Chemistry and Nanotechnology, Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Petroleum Chemistry and Catalysis, and Chemistry Engineering, and so on. Accepted papers will appear online followed by printed in hard copy.


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