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  Journal of Geological Resource and Engineering

Volume 1, Number 1, December 2013

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Volume 1, Number 1, December 2013
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Abstract: Huge amount of digital data of the Great East Japan Earthquake is provided by the highly-developed digital data technology. But the method and technique for analysis of these huge digital data are not developed sufficiently. This paper proposes a running spectrum technique for text data and analyzing changes of disaster phase during the disaster management cycle. Impact analysis of the nuclear power plant accidents have been performed by using Fukushima Minpo newspaper for its verification. The result shows the dynamic characteristics of the nuclear power plant accidents. As the time interval B becomes longer, the analysis data is used from wide range period along with the smoothing effect. When observing different time intervals B, fewer keywords have been ranked in the longer time intervals of B. The proposed technique is a powerful tool to analyze effectively the huge amount of digital data for the effective and efficient disaster response and management.


Key words: Impact analysis, Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, running spectrum analysis, newspaper.


Abstract: It is disclosed a method for the stability analysis of foundation piles and piers subjected to lateral loading, both static and seismic conditions. The stability analysis for stratified soil is based upon the models of foundation soil-structure interaction and the Rankine´s theory of earth passive pressure. In addition, its application is simpler and it can be solved using a spreadsheet. The procedure described in this work can be used in homogeneous soils as in stratified soils, considers the horizontal drag forces exerted by the soil mass against the foundation during an earthquake, can be used easily in the four pile and piers boundary cases, and considers the pore pressure generated in a fine saturated soil during an earthquake or during a rapid application of the horizontal load. The solution of two examples are shown, one in static condition and one in seismic condition, detailing the procedure step by step.


Key words: Ultimate lateral resistance of piles and piers, lateral bearing capacity of piles and piers, piles, piers, soil-structure interaction in piles and piers.


Abstract: A cantilevered block is instable rock which results from a combination of several discontinuities, in interaction with an underground mining excavation giving a mass rocky under-gangway without natural support. Since the starting of the gold mine of Akka in 1998, 4 deaths and 26 grave accidents happened that are associated to the falling of the cantilevered blocks. However, this study analyzes the causes of apparition of this instability in the underground gold mine of Akka which is in the buttonhole of Tagragra (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) taking into account the geological and geotechnical aspects. The more utilized geotechnical approaches were used to evaluate the quality of rocky mass including RQD, RMR and Q System method besides laboratory tests and geomechanical stations. After development of some classical formulas and using of simulation software and analytical methods, a way of support by bolting is proposed to stabilize the risk of blocks collapse inherent to the mining operations. Also we discuss here other technical solutions and theirs application limits in these cases. Finally, we confirmed the reliability of our conclusions and the type of the support proposed during 2012 and 2013 because we did not register any accident associated to cantilevered block  falling.


Key words: Stability, block cantilevered, support.


Abstract: Coal is the mainstay of power generation in India. The manifold increase in demand for coal puts a huge pressure on augmenting production, primarily from opencast mines. The increase in production necessitates heavy blasting in overburden and coal benches of opencast mines which poses numerous challenges in carrying out blasting operation techno-economically. Presently, the consumption of industrial explosives and accessories in Coal India has touched a whopping figure of 350 million USD per annum. The present paper discusses some of key challenges faced in various mines of coal in India during blasting where blast instrumentation may contribute to the mine productivity and economics significantly. Blast Instrumentation at mine level will prove to a harbinger for practicing blasting engineers. The blast instrumentation at Sonepur Bazari project resulted in direct savings in explosives cost by 29.5%. The use of well characterized explosives obtained by using MASW (multi channel analysis of surface waves) technique at Umrer project of Coal India Limited resulted in improvement in fragment size by 12.76%. It may be concluded with high degree of confidence that blast instrumentation at mine level will influence the mine productivity and economics.


Key words: Blast instrumentation, blast simulation, mine productivity, fragmentation.


Simulation of the Continental Plates Movement for the Earthquake Investigation

Mihail Borisovich Ignatyev, Tat'jana Sergeevna Katermina and Vadim Aleksandrovich Nenashev


Abstract: Predicting earthquake is old, but a very real issue. On our planet the earthquake killed thousands of people. Predicting earthquake can reduce the number of victims. There are many hypotheses about the nature of earthquakes, and one of the popular hypothesis is that the source of earthquakes links from the point of collision of continental plates, which seemed to float on the surface of the magma. Plate tectonics are confirmed by direct measurements of the speed of plates by interferometric methods and means of satellite navigation systems. The report addresses the problem of modeling the movement of continental plates. Earthquake prediction system should consist of a block of modeling movements of continental plates, the unit of measurement of the real position of slabs and blocks consideration of additional factors affecting the occurrence of earthquakes. Creating a real system of earthquake prediction requires extensive international cooperation.


Key words: Earthquake, combinatorial simulation, uncertainty, appearance, essence, cybernetical geology.


Abstract: The development of offshore wind energy becomes very fast in recent years due to its clean, safe, and high efficiency. However, the issue that quite a few offshore wind farms have been built in seismic active areas raises a great engineering challenge for the selection, design, and seismic evaluation of offshore wind turbine foundations. Earthquake is one of the most critical hazards for offshore wind turbines. The softening of soil due to pore water pressure buildup can sharply reduce the bearing capacity of the foundation, and consequently result in stability failure. The induced strong structural vibration has adverse impact on the normal operation of wind turbine as well as on the efficiency of power generation. In this study, a group of earthquake centrifuge tests was performed on a physical model of a wind turbine with gravity foundation. The seismic behavior of both the structure and the foundation soil was analyzed based on the recorded accelerations, pore water pressures, lateral displacements and settlements. The emphasis was on the interaction between foundation and soil. The results showed that gravity foundation can effectively resist the overturning moment induced by the superstructure. However, it was quite sensitive to the subsoil conditions. The large settlement and tilt in the offshore foundation might affect the performance of a wind turbine.


Key words: Offshore wind turbine, gravity foundation, seismic responses, centrifuge tests.


Cooling Systems for Borehole Tools

Benedict Holbein, Jörg Isele and Luigi Spatafora


Abstract: Since 2012 the work on a cooling system for borehole probes is going on at the IAI. It is supposed to allow the usage of standard electronics, as a first approach in borehole environments at 5 km depth, with 200 C and 600 bar. Within ZWERG, the cooling system serves as base to realize different measurement operations without time limitations. Therefore it contains an insulation to reduce outer heat input, an active cooling system to cool down components which are sensitive to heat inside, like electronics, as well as a cooled room where the electronic can be installed. The first approach based on the example borehole in Soultz-sous-fôret, France (5 km, 200 C) shall initiate further project in this field, with the perspective to conduct measurement operations in even hotter boreholes. Alternative methods of heat management in borehole probes investigated and developed at IAI, are high temperature electronics and PCM-systems.


Key words: Cooling, deep geothermal energy, borehole tools, down-hole monitoring.




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