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  Journal of Life Sciences

Volume 6, Number 12, December 2012

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Volume 6, Number 12, December 2012
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Abstract: Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems in Azerbaijan. Symptomatic plants in main crop-producing areas were tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) using specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Then RCA (rolling circle amplification) of circular DNA and PCR using different specific primer pairs have indicated that the tested symptomatic plant samples were completely infected by the following viruses: Luteovirus [BLRV (Bean leaf roll virus)], Potyviruses [BCMV (Bean common mosaic virus), BYMV (Bean yellow mosaic virus)], Bromovirus [(AMV) Alfa-alfa mosaic virus], Geminiviruses [CpCDV (Cickpea chlorotic dwarf virus) and TYLCV (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus)] and Nanoviruses [two different FBNYV (Faba bean necrotic yellow virus) and FBNSV (Faba bean necrotic stunt virus)]. At the same time generation sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals and activity of antioxidant enzymes were studied in the naturally infected plants.


Key words: Food crops, virus-like symptoms, viral diseases, molecular methods, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzymes.


Helicobacter pylori Biofilm Formation and Gene Expression on Abiotic Surfaces Using a Cyanobacterial Extract

Alba E. Vega, Fabio A. Persia, Gabriel A. Salinas-Ibañez, Teresa Alarcn, Stella M.C. Lucero Estrada, Teresa I. Cortiñas and Humberto J. Silva


Abstract: The effects of a cyanobacterial extract (CE) on Helicobacter pylori biofilm formation onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic abiotic surfaces and the expression of luxS, flaA, omp18, lpxD and ureA genes associated to biofilm were studied. NCTC11638 reference strain and HP796, a resistant clinical isolate, were grown in Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 1% CE. The ability to form biofilm, viability, morphological changes and gene expression of adhered H. pylori cells were determined. The strains were able to form biofilm on both surfaces with the nutritional supplements analyzed. H. pylori conserved a characteristic bacillary morphology and viability with CE. Cells attachment was higher with CE than FCS regardless of strains and surfaces. The most remarkable increase in gene expression was observed with the omp18 gene using the CE supplement, indicating the important participation of outer membrane proteins in biofilm establishment. The clinical isolate showed similar and even greater gene expression than the reference strain. The results obtained indicated that the nutrients provided by CE favored biofilm formation with retained pathogenicity that under certain conditions can occur in natural aquatic environments.


Key words: Helicobacter pylori, biofilm, cyanobacterial extract, gene expression.


Abstract: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was conducted for the differentiation of two most commonly occurring insect species Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanicana. This technique is proved to be a quick and effective to establish genetic markers to differentiate morphologically similar populations. During the study cockroach species Periplanata americana and Blatella germanicana were considered. Ten random primers were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Many of such bands obtained, which differentiate between the two species. On the basis of interpretability, simplicity and reproducibility, six primers P1 (GATGACCGCC), P3 (GGCACGTAAC), P6 (GGTGCGCCTT), P7 (GTCAGAGTCG), P8 (GTCGCCGTCT) and P10 (GTGCCCGATG) were considered positive for genetic differentiation and analysis. A series of bands ranging from ~300 bp to ~1,000 bp obtained indicates that these two species are related, however they exhibit some variations. It has also been observed that the same primers also amplified some DNA fragments of the same size in both the species, which indicates the presence of conserved regions, sharing ancestral relationship. Some of the fragments were unique in both the species which may be used for diagnostic purposes. The study concludes that the RAPD-PCR technique is useful for the study of molecular taxonomy in insects.


Key words: RAPD, PCR, cockroach, random primers, genetic differentiation.


Abstract: One of the great concerns of the customers is the traceability of the products. The authors proposed to link microbial ecology to geographical origin of foodstuffs by a molecular technique joined to an image analysis. Molecular techniques employing 16S and 28S rDNA profiles generated by PCR-DGGE were used to detect the variation in microbial community (bacteria, fungi) of Pangasius fish from Viet Nam harvested in different aquaculture farms and during different seasons and Shea tree fruits from five different districts in Mali. The bacterial DNA profiles from Pangasius fish and the fungal DNA profile from Shea tree fruits were specific to each place of production and could be used as a biological bar code certifying the origin of fish and fruit. To follow the product during processing, the authors proposed to identify and validate some pertinent biological markers which come from the environment of the food to assure their traceability during international trade. It is new analytical method which permits to determine the origin of food or to follow them during international trade.


Key words: Geographical origin, foodstuff, PCR-DGGE, microbial community, DNA profile, biological bar-code.


Abstract: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis was used to study the genotype relation among ten different olives varieties from Al-Zafrania and Al-Mosel station ministry of agriculture/Iraq Shami, Sorani , Manzenllo, Qaysi, Arbqween, Jlot (Labeeb), Baashiqi, Dahkan, Nepali, Khodeiri, Fifteen SSR loci were studied and produced 239 amplified fragment. Two hundred and thirty seven of these loci (99.16%) were polymorphic over all the genotypes tested. Dendrogram and matrix of similarity were obtained by the Unweighted Pair-Group Method analysis (UPGMA). Study showed two groups: group A: Nepali, Arbqween, and group B: divided in two sub groups (sub group B1: Jlot, Dahkan, sub group B2: other cultivar), while the genotype relation according to phenotype was confused. SSR has a better molecular marker than other molecular technique for detecting genetic relationship among cultivars, and help in known the pedigree of relatives and ancestors.


Key word: Olive, PCR, SSR, molecular markers.


Abstract: In the present study was investigated Arg-X protease-sensitive in supramolecular-genome compartments (nucleoplasm, chromatin, nuclear matrix), during the period of the transcriptional activation of chromatin when the growth processes was initiated in the mature germs of winter and transformed from it spring wheat. The germs have been separated from endosperm from 0 h (air-dry seed) up to 21 h in each 3 h after the start of seeds soaking. Cell nucleus have been allocated from germs and cleared, and then from them supramolecular-genome compartments were extracted by increasing ionic strength of solution. The Arg-X (tryptase) activity was assessed by cleavage of Arg-X bonds in the arginine-enriched protein protamine in all nuclear fractions. In the present study have shown what Arg-X protease-sensitives zones can be located on the supramolecular structures of chromatin matrix in processes of realization of ontogenetic programs of development in mature germs of the winter and transformed from it spring wheat. Arg-X protease-sensitive can translocate and coordinated in heteropolymer structures on the same genetic matrix. Questions of epigenetic mechanisms are discussed. 


Key words: Arg-X protease-sensitive, G1 phase of cell cycle, supramolecular structures, cell nuclei, spring and winter wheat.


What Do Cattle Prefer in a Tropical Climate: Water Immersion or Artificial Shade?

Ana Carina Alves Pereira de Mira Geraldo, Alfredo Manuel Franco Pereira, Cristiane Gonçalves Titto and Evaldo Antonio Lencioni Titto


Abstract: Animal performance is affected by high air temperature and it is known that shade reduces the absorption of radiant temperature, and water for immersion facilitates heat loss. This study intends to find preferences of resources that contribute for the well-being of cattle and how they alterdaily behaviour. During summer, six Caracu and six Red Angus bulls were submitted to two different treatments: availability of artificial shade and water for immersion and availability of water for immersion. The categories observed were: positions (in the sun, under the shade, in the water), posture (standing, lying down) and activities (grazing, ruminating, leisure). The behavioural patterns were recorded using the focal sampling method every 15 minutes (from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.). When shade and water for immersion coexists, cattle in this study prefer shade to avoid solar radiation. Both breeds had remained more time grazing, followed by ruminating in the Caracu breed, and by resting in the Red Angus breed. The Caracu breed had presented clear preference for the shade resource, but that fact was not always observed in the Red Angus breed. In hot climates, resources for defence against heat load, as shade and water for immersion improve the well-being of cattle.


Key words: Animal welfare, behaviour, grazing, Caracu, Red Angus.


Abstract: Genetic parameters for udder morphology traits either subjectively assessed or exactly measured, and a combination of both sets of traits were estimated using multi-trait animal model and algorithm REML (program VCE 4.0). Purebred Tsigai and Improved Valachian breeds, and crossbreds with Lacaune and East Friesian were studied. Subjectively assessed traits included udder depth (UD), cistern depth (CD), teat placement (TP), teat size (TS), udder cleft (UC), udder attachment (UA) and udder shape (US). Exact measurements included udder length (UL), udder width (UW), udder depth (UDEx), cistern depth (CDEx), teat length (TL) and teat angle (TA). Heritabilities estimated for subjectively assessed traits were lower than those estimated for exact measurements and ranged from 0.090 (UA) to 0.294 (CD). Heritabilities estimated for exact measurements ranged from 0.102 (UW) to 0.448 (CDEx). In simultaneous evaluation of four subjectively assessed traits and corresponding exact measurements, heritabilities remained almost the same. High genetic correlations (0.855 to 0.937) between UD and UDEx, CD and CDEx, TS and TL and between TP and TA were found. These findings allow presuming that genetic evaluation based on subjectively assessed traits could become an effective tool in selection programs aimed at improvement of udder morphology in dairy ewes. 


Key words: Dairy sheep, mammary gland, morphology traits, heritability, genetic correlation.


Abstract: Labroides dimidiatus has been proven to remove ectoparasites and monogeneans from client fishes and studies showed that they were not infected with the parasite. Due to this, there is a possibility that a defense mechanism against pathogen and parasitic invasion exist in the epidermal mucus which serves as a mechanical as well as biochemical barrier. The study was performed to identify the amino acid and fatty acid components using GC (gas chromatography) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) in epidermal mucus of L. dimidiatus. The present study revealed 16 components of amino acid and 22 types of fatty acid in epidermal mucus of L. dimidiatus. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) was the most prominent PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) which contributed approximately 11.69% of total fatty acids. The other major fatty acids are palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1n9c), linoledaidic acid (C18:2n6t), arachidic acid (C20:0), Gamma-Linoleic acid (C18:3n6) and gadoleic acid (C20:1) which contained reasonable amounts of 9.52%, 8.06%, 6.26%, 8.33%, 6.21% and 9.05% of total fatty acids, respectively. This present study also demonstrated the presence of various amino acids in skin extract. Glycine, glutamine, arginine, asparagin and alanine were found at high concentration of 8.09%, 6.95%, 5.73%, 4.74%, 4.58% respectively. The most abundance percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) was found to be the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid (AA) which inducing platelet aggregation, facilitate the blood clotting process and adhesion in endothelial cells during wound healing and might be responsible for rapid tissue growth in L. dimidiatus. It can be concluded that the amino acid and fatty acid profile from the epidermal mucus of L. dimidiatus contains most of the essential components required to play a possible role in its defense mechanism. Understanding the biochemical properties of L. dimidiatus epidermal mucus in defense mechanism would enable to determine how this fish protect itself from parasitic infection. 


Key words: Labroides dimidiatus, defense mechanism, amino acid, fatty acid, epidermal mucus.


Abstract: The solid waste generated in industrial berry juice production was considered as a low cost raw material for the extraction of natural antioxidants. Berries contain phenolic compounds with high antioxidant potential, including anthocianin. Quantitative determination method for monomeric anthocianins in bilberry juice and marc was validated. An official method from Association of Analytical Communities was used to determine anthocianins in juice and marc extracts by measuring light absorption for solutions with pH values 1.0 and 4.5 at 520 nm and 700 nm. Results were expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent, as it is the most common anthocianin pigment. Calibration curve was obtained, linearity was checked, working interval and accuracy was determined and samples were tested. Mentioned method was evaluated as appropriate for quantitative anthocianin analysis in bilberry juice and marc. Necessity of calibration curve was approved using extinction coefficient of cyanidin-3-glucoside instead. Method assures adequate precision and accuracy as well.


Key words: Natural antioxidants, monomeric anthocianins, bilberry juice, bilberry marc.


Necrotic Incompatibility in Crosses of Bread Wheats in Argentina

Francisco Javier Di Pane and Gilberto Kraan


Abstract: Synthetic wheats are the product of the cross between Triticum turgidum L. var. durum and T. tauschii. The T. tauschii has shown excellent resistance to diseases, salinity, and drought. However, these synthetic wheats are also carriers of genes that produce varying degrees of necrosis, which is expressed as death of tissues in the hybrids (F1) generated from crosses with other bread wheats. Necrotic incompatibility is a gradual premature leaf death in certain bread wheat F1 plants and it is caused by the interaction of two genes Ne1 and Ne2. In this paper 40 hybridizations with T. tauschii in the genetic constitution of some of the two parents made in 2006 and 2007 are presented, and their respective F1 planted at the CEI Barrow (Chacra Experimental de Barrow). The plants that showed necrotic incompatibility had less growth than the normal F1 at tillering. Symptoms appeared at the beginning of tillering, remaining in that state and till jointing but they never headed. Out of the 16 Argentinean commercial cultivars evaluated, seven had the Ne allele in its genetic constitution and therefore showed necrotic incompatibility, whereas nine of them did not have the NE allele and their F1 developed normally.


Key words: Triticum tauschii, Triticum turgidum L. var. durum, synthetic wheat, necrotic incompatibility.


Abstract: This study presents the antimicrobial effect of natural surface secretes of some common ornamental plants leaves (Ficus elastica, Philodendrom bipinnatifidum and Aglonema) against some pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa and Staph. Aureus), and fungi (Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus flavus). It was concluded that all tested washing water of the plants leaves secretes exhibited various inhibitory effects, both Philodendrom bipinnatifidum and Aglonema commutatum had exhibited more antibacterial activity than Ficus elastica. While both E. coli and P. aeruginosa were being more sensitive than Staph. aureus. The same inhibitory effects were observed when the plants leaves inoculated in their surface with pathogenic bacteria. In contrast to bacterial inhibitory effects, the washing water of natural surface secretes of tested ornamental plants leaves induced mycelium growth of both tested fungi. Microsporum gypseum mycelium growth induced more than Aspergillus flavus especially in case of the washing water of Ficus elastic that have highest effects at 7.5/500 mL of medium. This study concluded the uses of ornamental plants for the indoors and outdoors to control the growth of pathogenic microbes and problems associated with hospital.


Key words: Ornamental plants, natural surface secretes, antimicrobial, pathogenic micro-organism.


Abstract: The paper sheds light on the factors enabling sustainable development of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) of Albania; socio-economic, legal and regulatory aspects and institutional capacity related to the MAP sector in the country; sector dynamics, challenges and opportunities; and Albanias positioning in the world markets. Stewardship of MAPs natural base in the country remains a challenge as approximately 95% of the MAPs are collected from the wild. Albania continues to be the leader in Sage exports to the US market accounting for 49% of its market share. Statistical data and direct communication with MAP relevant stakeholders reveal that there is a great demand for the Albanian MAPs from the EU and US markets. However, as clearly indicated in this paper, increased competitiveness of this sector in the world markets should be preceded by sustainable management of the MAPs which can be achieved through (1) continuous training and education of the MAP value chain members prior to harvesting season, (2) organic production and (3) commercial cultivation of MAPs. This paper highlights that sustainable management and sector development require combined efforts of all sector stakeholders in an attempt of all respecting Mother Natures generosity, and if harvesting as living forever. 


Key words: Albania, sustainable development, medicinal and aromatic plants.


Verbal Communication in HIV-1 Patients: A New Perspective on the Study of Cognitive Disorders

Valeria Abusamra, Lorena Abusamra, Brbara Sampedro, Mara Macaya, Mercedes Gemes, Micaela Difalcis and Aldo Ferreres


Abstract: The aims were: (1) to study verbal communication skills in HIV-1 patients, and (2) to analyze the proportion of patients presenting with verbal communication deficits by applying the MEC Protocol. The authors evaluated 20 patients over 18 years of age; HIV-1 positive; native speakers of Spanish; without alterations in language acquisition, reading, writing or history of neurological or psychiatric disease; patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment (not efavirenz) with viral load > 50 copies/mL, and patients not undergoing treatment. Their verbal communication abilities were evaluated with Protocol MEC. The results demonstrate that some of the skills evaluated are more vulnerable in HIV-1 patients. The tasks that showed the most frequent and systematic deficits among patients were discourse-level tasks and those that evaluate lexical semantic processing. The authors compared patients performances with the cut-off. The scores were turned into score Z. A hierarchic cluster analysis was carried out to identify subgroups with different profiles according to the areas that were affected. The detection of communication deficit profiles in HIV-1 patients would be the starting point for the identification of disorders and the admission of the patients to health care system. This research constitutes an initial approach towards the identification of clinical profiles among HIV-1 patients.


Key words: HIV-1, neuropsychology, cognitive disorders, language, communication, impairments.


Cortical Arousal Strategies in Left-Handers during the Aural Perception and Manual Playback of Mono- and Polyphonic Rhythmical Patterns

Pavlovych Olga Sergiyivna, Morenko Alevtyna Grigorivna, Kotyk Olena Adamivna and Vlasjuk Svitlana Sergiyivna


Abstract: The actual purpose of this study is to establish the cortical arousal strategies (according to the power of the EEG (electroencephalogram) a-oscillations) during the aural perception as well as manual playback of mono- and polyphonic rhythmical patterns in men with left profile. The study involved 35 men from 19 to 21 years old with the left profile of the manual and aural asymmetries. EEG was recorded in the functional status of rest: during the aural perception and playback of mono- and polyphonic rhythmical patterns with the left and right hand fingers. The monophony in the rhythmical pattern sounding relative to monophonic patterns is followed by more expressed and widespread cortical processes of the EEG a-oscillation depression. Given patterns indicate a greater intensity of ascending nonspecific arousal strategies of data processing by men on conditions of the sound and harmonious complications of the pattern structure. The aural perception and playback of rhythmical patterns with both hands were accompanied by the increased significance of arousal processes in the right hemisphere. This may be due to the dominant role of the hemisphere during the formation of the innervation impacts on the left-handers neuro-motor apparatus. More differentiated changes in the cerebral cortex were installed during the left hand activation.


Key words: Left-handers, mono- and polyphonic sounding, alpha rhythm, rhythmic sense.


Abstract: Purpose: to examine the impact of omega-3 nutritional protocol for risky pregnant women on the occurrence of preeclampsia. Topic: Supplementation with omega-3 has been proposed to reduce the risk of preeclampsia, but the effects of this intervention are still uncertain. Method: A RCT (randomized controlled trial) had been conducted on 400 pregnant women between 12 and 16 weeks of gestation. Women were assigned randomly to either the control group or the study group. Achievements: Of the 400 women enrolled, 195 were randomly assigned to the study group and 205 to the control group. There was a significant difference between the study and the control groups in relation to the incidence of preeclampsia (0.5% and 5.5% respectively, P < 0.05).


Key words: Omega-3 fatty acids, high risk pregnancy, preeclampsia, supplementation.


Wildlife Crossing Zones along the Ring Changbai Mountain Scenic Highway, China

Yun Wang, Zhengji Piao, Lei Guan, Haifeng Li, Qilin Li, Yayi Lu, Lei Gao and Jiding Chen


Abstract: The 84-km long Changbai Mountain scenic Ring highway encircles and bisects the nature reserve. With the expected increasing traffic flow, increased wildlife vehicle collisions and barrier effects are likely. In order to identify wildlife crossing zones and future protective measurement, the authors carried out 10 wildlife highway crossing surveys during the winter in 2008-2009. For each 5-km section, the authors recorded highway crossings of all small/mid-sized and large mammals and one large protected bird species, the hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia) and noted snow depth and the dominant vegetation type. The authors detected 12 mammal species and one avifauna species crossing the highway 502 times. The smallest of mammal was the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). Large mammals detected included the wild boar (Sus scrofe) (64) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) (1). The average number of wildlife crossings per 5 km was 29.5. It was found that species richness and crossing frequency was higher in sections with broad leaf forest compared to sections with white birch secondary forest significantly. The authors suggested that disturbance of broad leaf forest be minimized during construction and strict protection be established for broad leaf forests around Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve. 


Key words: Highway, wildlife, crossing zones, road ecology, Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve, China.




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Journal of Life Sciences (ISSN1934-7391) is a peer-reviewed, International and professional academic journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of life sciences. JLS is striving to provide the best platform for researchers and scholars worldwide to exchange their latest findings and results. For more informations, please contact life-sciences(@)


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